A longitudinal study on smoking in relationship to fitness and heart rate response

Claire M Bernaards, Jos W R Twisk, Willem Van Mechelen, Jan Snel, Han C G Kemper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: Smoking has been shown to be associated with impaired cardiovascular fitness and reduced heart rate response to exercise. It is not known whether these associations are present in adolescence and young adults, and whether they change over time.

METHODS: Maximal oxygen uptake ([OV0312]O(2max)), maximum treadmill slope (Slope(max)), resting heart rate (HR(rest)), heart rate at submaximal exercise (HR(submax)), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximum heart rate (HR(max)) were measured one to nine times between ages 13 and 36 in 298 male and 334 female participants of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to study the longitudinal relationship between smoking and cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise, whereas linear regression analyses were used to study the reversibility of smoking effects at age 36.

RESULTS: Moderate to heavy smoking (>/=10 g of tobacco per day) was longitudinally and negatively related to [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), HR(submax), and HR(max). With increasing age, the negative relationship between smoking and [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), and HR(max) became stronger in males. Cross-sectional analyses suggested that the adverse effects of smoking were reversible in 36-yr-old males.

CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise are already reduced in young healthy smokers. In men, the adverse effects of smoking become stronger with increasing age but appear to be reversible at age 36.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)793-800
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume35
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2003

Cite this

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title = "A longitudinal study on smoking in relationship to fitness and heart rate response",
abstract = "PURPOSE: Smoking has been shown to be associated with impaired cardiovascular fitness and reduced heart rate response to exercise. It is not known whether these associations are present in adolescence and young adults, and whether they change over time.METHODS: Maximal oxygen uptake ([OV0312]O(2max)), maximum treadmill slope (Slope(max)), resting heart rate (HR(rest)), heart rate at submaximal exercise (HR(submax)), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximum heart rate (HR(max)) were measured one to nine times between ages 13 and 36 in 298 male and 334 female participants of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to study the longitudinal relationship between smoking and cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise, whereas linear regression analyses were used to study the reversibility of smoking effects at age 36.RESULTS: Moderate to heavy smoking (>/=10 g of tobacco per day) was longitudinally and negatively related to [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), HR(submax), and HR(max). With increasing age, the negative relationship between smoking and [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), and HR(max) became stronger in males. Cross-sectional analyses suggested that the adverse effects of smoking were reversible in 36-yr-old males.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise are already reduced in young healthy smokers. In men, the adverse effects of smoking become stronger with increasing age but appear to be reversible at age 36.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Cohort Studies, Confidence Intervals, Cross-Sectional Studies, Exercise/physiology, Exercise Test, Exercise Tolerance, Female, Heart Rate/physiology, Humans, Linear Models, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Netherlands, Oxygen Consumption, Physical Fitness/physiology, Predictive Value of Tests, Probability, Risk Assessment, Sex Factors, Smoking/adverse effects",
author = "Bernaards, {Claire M} and Twisk, {Jos W R} and {Van Mechelen}, Willem and Jan Snel and Kemper, {Han C G}",
year = "2003",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1249/01.MSS.0000064955.31005.E0",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "793--800",
journal = "Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
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}

A longitudinal study on smoking in relationship to fitness and heart rate response. / Bernaards, Claire M; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Mechelen, Willem; Snel, Jan; Kemper, Han C G.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 35, No. 5, 05.2003, p. 793-800.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A longitudinal study on smoking in relationship to fitness and heart rate response

AU - Bernaards, Claire M

AU - Twisk, Jos W R

AU - Van Mechelen, Willem

AU - Snel, Jan

AU - Kemper, Han C G

PY - 2003/5

Y1 - 2003/5

N2 - PURPOSE: Smoking has been shown to be associated with impaired cardiovascular fitness and reduced heart rate response to exercise. It is not known whether these associations are present in adolescence and young adults, and whether they change over time.METHODS: Maximal oxygen uptake ([OV0312]O(2max)), maximum treadmill slope (Slope(max)), resting heart rate (HR(rest)), heart rate at submaximal exercise (HR(submax)), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximum heart rate (HR(max)) were measured one to nine times between ages 13 and 36 in 298 male and 334 female participants of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to study the longitudinal relationship between smoking and cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise, whereas linear regression analyses were used to study the reversibility of smoking effects at age 36.RESULTS: Moderate to heavy smoking (>/=10 g of tobacco per day) was longitudinally and negatively related to [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), HR(submax), and HR(max). With increasing age, the negative relationship between smoking and [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), and HR(max) became stronger in males. Cross-sectional analyses suggested that the adverse effects of smoking were reversible in 36-yr-old males.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise are already reduced in young healthy smokers. In men, the adverse effects of smoking become stronger with increasing age but appear to be reversible at age 36.

AB - PURPOSE: Smoking has been shown to be associated with impaired cardiovascular fitness and reduced heart rate response to exercise. It is not known whether these associations are present in adolescence and young adults, and whether they change over time.METHODS: Maximal oxygen uptake ([OV0312]O(2max)), maximum treadmill slope (Slope(max)), resting heart rate (HR(rest)), heart rate at submaximal exercise (HR(submax)), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximum heart rate (HR(max)) were measured one to nine times between ages 13 and 36 in 298 male and 334 female participants of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to study the longitudinal relationship between smoking and cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise, whereas linear regression analyses were used to study the reversibility of smoking effects at age 36.RESULTS: Moderate to heavy smoking (>/=10 g of tobacco per day) was longitudinally and negatively related to [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), HR(submax), and HR(max). With increasing age, the negative relationship between smoking and [OV0312]O(2max), Slope(max), and HR(max) became stronger in males. Cross-sectional analyses suggested that the adverse effects of smoking were reversible in 36-yr-old males.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular fitness and heart rate response to exercise are already reduced in young healthy smokers. In men, the adverse effects of smoking become stronger with increasing age but appear to be reversible at age 36.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Age Factors

KW - Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Confidence Intervals

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Exercise/physiology

KW - Exercise Test

KW - Exercise Tolerance

KW - Female

KW - Heart Rate/physiology

KW - Humans

KW - Linear Models

KW - Longitudinal Studies

KW - Male

KW - Netherlands

KW - Oxygen Consumption

KW - Physical Fitness/physiology

KW - Predictive Value of Tests

KW - Probability

KW - Risk Assessment

KW - Sex Factors

KW - Smoking/adverse effects

U2 - 10.1249/01.MSS.0000064955.31005.E0

DO - 10.1249/01.MSS.0000064955.31005.E0

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 793

EP - 800

JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

JF - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 5

ER -