A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes

Z. van Kesteren, A. van der Horst, O. J. Gurney-Champion, I. Bones, D. Tekelenburg, T. Alderliesten, G. van Tienhoven, R. Klaassen, H. W. M. van Laarhoven, A. Bel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: For radiotherapy of abdominal cancer, four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is desirable for tumor definition and the assessment of tumor and organ motion. However, irregular breathing gives rise to image artifacts. We developed a outlier rejection strategy resulting in a 4DMRI with reduced image artifacts in the presence of irregular breathing. Methods: We obtained 2D T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo images, with an interleaved 1D navigator acquisition to obtain the respiratory signal during free breathing imaging in 2 patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Prior to binning, upper and lower inclusion thresholds were chosen such that 95% of the acquired images were included, while minimizing the distance between the thresholds (inclusion range (IR)). We compared our strategy (Min95) with three commonly applied strategies: phase binning with all images included (Phase), amplitude binning with all images included (MaxIE), and amplitude binning with the thresholds set as the mean end-inhale and mean end-exhale diaphragm positions (MeanIE). We compared 4DMRI quality based on: Data included (DI); percentage of images remaining after outlier rejection. Reconstruction completeness (RC); percentage of bin-slice combinations containing at least one image after binning. Intra-bin variation (IBV); interquartile range of the diaphragm position within the bin-slice combination, averaged over three central slices and ten respiratory bins. IR. Image smoothness (S); quantified by fitting a parabola to the diaphragm profile in a sagittal plane of the reconstructed 4DMRI. A two-sided Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to test for significance in differences between the Min95 strategy and the Phase, MaxIE, and MeanIE strategies. Results: Based on the fourteen subjects, the Min95 binning strategy outperformed the other strategies with a mean RC of 95.5%, mean IBV of 1.6 mm, mean IR of 15.1 mm and a mean S of 0.90. The Phase strategy showed a poor mean IBV of 6.2 mm and the MaxIE strategy showed a poor mean RC of 85.6%, resulting in image artifacts (mean S of 0.76). The MeanIE strategy demonstrated a mean DI of 85.6%. Conclusions: Our Min95 reconstruction strategy resulted in a 4DMRI with less artifacts and more precise diaphragm position reconstruction compared to the other strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number80
JournalRadiation Oncology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

van Kesteren, Z., van der Horst, A., Gurney-Champion, O. J., Bones, I., Tekelenburg, D., Alderliesten, T., ... Bel, A. (2019). A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes. Radiation Oncology, 14(1), [80]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1279-z
van Kesteren, Z. ; van der Horst, A. ; Gurney-Champion, O. J. ; Bones, I. ; Tekelenburg, D. ; Alderliesten, T. ; van Tienhoven, G. ; Klaassen, R. ; van Laarhoven, H. W. M. ; Bel, A. / A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes. In: Radiation Oncology. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 1.
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title = "A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes",
abstract = "Background: For radiotherapy of abdominal cancer, four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is desirable for tumor definition and the assessment of tumor and organ motion. However, irregular breathing gives rise to image artifacts. We developed a outlier rejection strategy resulting in a 4DMRI with reduced image artifacts in the presence of irregular breathing. Methods: We obtained 2D T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo images, with an interleaved 1D navigator acquisition to obtain the respiratory signal during free breathing imaging in 2 patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Prior to binning, upper and lower inclusion thresholds were chosen such that 95{\%} of the acquired images were included, while minimizing the distance between the thresholds (inclusion range (IR)). We compared our strategy (Min95) with three commonly applied strategies: phase binning with all images included (Phase), amplitude binning with all images included (MaxIE), and amplitude binning with the thresholds set as the mean end-inhale and mean end-exhale diaphragm positions (MeanIE). We compared 4DMRI quality based on: Data included (DI); percentage of images remaining after outlier rejection. Reconstruction completeness (RC); percentage of bin-slice combinations containing at least one image after binning. Intra-bin variation (IBV); interquartile range of the diaphragm position within the bin-slice combination, averaged over three central slices and ten respiratory bins. IR. Image smoothness (S); quantified by fitting a parabola to the diaphragm profile in a sagittal plane of the reconstructed 4DMRI. A two-sided Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to test for significance in differences between the Min95 strategy and the Phase, MaxIE, and MeanIE strategies. Results: Based on the fourteen subjects, the Min95 binning strategy outperformed the other strategies with a mean RC of 95.5{\%}, mean IBV of 1.6 mm, mean IR of 15.1 mm and a mean S of 0.90. The Phase strategy showed a poor mean IBV of 6.2 mm and the MaxIE strategy showed a poor mean RC of 85.6{\%}, resulting in image artifacts (mean S of 0.76). The MeanIE strategy demonstrated a mean DI of 85.6{\%}. Conclusions: Our Min95 reconstruction strategy resulted in a 4DMRI with less artifacts and more precise diaphragm position reconstruction compared to the other strategies.",
keywords = "Cancer, Four-dimensional, Image quality, MRI, Radiotherapy, Respiratory motion",
author = "{van Kesteren}, Z. and {van der Horst}, A. and Gurney-Champion, {O. J.} and I. Bones and D. Tekelenburg and T. Alderliesten and {van Tienhoven}, G. and R. Klaassen and {van Laarhoven}, {H. W. M.} and A. Bel",
year = "2019",
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volume = "14",
journal = "Radiation Oncology",
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A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes. / van Kesteren, Z.; van der Horst, A.; Gurney-Champion, O. J.; Bones, I.; Tekelenburg, D.; Alderliesten, T.; van Tienhoven, G.; Klaassen, R.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Bel, A.

In: Radiation Oncology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 80, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel amplitude binning strategy to handle irregular breathing during 4DMRI acquisition: Improved imaging for radiotherapy purposes

AU - van Kesteren, Z.

AU - van der Horst, A.

AU - Gurney-Champion, O. J.

AU - Bones, I.

AU - Tekelenburg, D.

AU - Alderliesten, T.

AU - van Tienhoven, G.

AU - Klaassen, R.

AU - van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

AU - Bel, A.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Background: For radiotherapy of abdominal cancer, four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is desirable for tumor definition and the assessment of tumor and organ motion. However, irregular breathing gives rise to image artifacts. We developed a outlier rejection strategy resulting in a 4DMRI with reduced image artifacts in the presence of irregular breathing. Methods: We obtained 2D T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo images, with an interleaved 1D navigator acquisition to obtain the respiratory signal during free breathing imaging in 2 patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Prior to binning, upper and lower inclusion thresholds were chosen such that 95% of the acquired images were included, while minimizing the distance between the thresholds (inclusion range (IR)). We compared our strategy (Min95) with three commonly applied strategies: phase binning with all images included (Phase), amplitude binning with all images included (MaxIE), and amplitude binning with the thresholds set as the mean end-inhale and mean end-exhale diaphragm positions (MeanIE). We compared 4DMRI quality based on: Data included (DI); percentage of images remaining after outlier rejection. Reconstruction completeness (RC); percentage of bin-slice combinations containing at least one image after binning. Intra-bin variation (IBV); interquartile range of the diaphragm position within the bin-slice combination, averaged over three central slices and ten respiratory bins. IR. Image smoothness (S); quantified by fitting a parabola to the diaphragm profile in a sagittal plane of the reconstructed 4DMRI. A two-sided Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to test for significance in differences between the Min95 strategy and the Phase, MaxIE, and MeanIE strategies. Results: Based on the fourteen subjects, the Min95 binning strategy outperformed the other strategies with a mean RC of 95.5%, mean IBV of 1.6 mm, mean IR of 15.1 mm and a mean S of 0.90. The Phase strategy showed a poor mean IBV of 6.2 mm and the MaxIE strategy showed a poor mean RC of 85.6%, resulting in image artifacts (mean S of 0.76). The MeanIE strategy demonstrated a mean DI of 85.6%. Conclusions: Our Min95 reconstruction strategy resulted in a 4DMRI with less artifacts and more precise diaphragm position reconstruction compared to the other strategies.

AB - Background: For radiotherapy of abdominal cancer, four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is desirable for tumor definition and the assessment of tumor and organ motion. However, irregular breathing gives rise to image artifacts. We developed a outlier rejection strategy resulting in a 4DMRI with reduced image artifacts in the presence of irregular breathing. Methods: We obtained 2D T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo images, with an interleaved 1D navigator acquisition to obtain the respiratory signal during free breathing imaging in 2 patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Prior to binning, upper and lower inclusion thresholds were chosen such that 95% of the acquired images were included, while minimizing the distance between the thresholds (inclusion range (IR)). We compared our strategy (Min95) with three commonly applied strategies: phase binning with all images included (Phase), amplitude binning with all images included (MaxIE), and amplitude binning with the thresholds set as the mean end-inhale and mean end-exhale diaphragm positions (MeanIE). We compared 4DMRI quality based on: Data included (DI); percentage of images remaining after outlier rejection. Reconstruction completeness (RC); percentage of bin-slice combinations containing at least one image after binning. Intra-bin variation (IBV); interquartile range of the diaphragm position within the bin-slice combination, averaged over three central slices and ten respiratory bins. IR. Image smoothness (S); quantified by fitting a parabola to the diaphragm profile in a sagittal plane of the reconstructed 4DMRI. A two-sided Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to test for significance in differences between the Min95 strategy and the Phase, MaxIE, and MeanIE strategies. Results: Based on the fourteen subjects, the Min95 binning strategy outperformed the other strategies with a mean RC of 95.5%, mean IBV of 1.6 mm, mean IR of 15.1 mm and a mean S of 0.90. The Phase strategy showed a poor mean IBV of 6.2 mm and the MaxIE strategy showed a poor mean RC of 85.6%, resulting in image artifacts (mean S of 0.76). The MeanIE strategy demonstrated a mean DI of 85.6%. Conclusions: Our Min95 reconstruction strategy resulted in a 4DMRI with less artifacts and more precise diaphragm position reconstruction compared to the other strategies.

KW - Cancer

KW - Four-dimensional

KW - Image quality

KW - MRI

KW - Radiotherapy

KW - Respiratory motion

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31088490

U2 - 10.1186/s13014-019-1279-z

DO - 10.1186/s13014-019-1279-z

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - Radiation Oncology

JF - Radiation Oncology

SN - 1748-717X

IS - 1

M1 - 80

ER -