Background: Several acylcarnitines used as primary markers on dried blood filter papers (DBS) for newborn screening lack specificity and contribute to a higher false positive rate. The analysis of urine acylglycines is useful in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) including medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), isovaleric acidemia, and beta-ketothiolase deficiency (BKTD). Currently, no method for analyzing acylglycines from DBS has been published. Methods: Acylglycines were extracted from two 3.2 mm DBS punches and butylated using Butanol-HCl. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS) with run time of 10 min permits resolution and quantitation of 15 acylglycines; including several isobaric. Method development was completed. Reference intervals (n = 573) were established for four birth weight groups. Furthermore, samples from patients with a confirmed IEM (n = 11), and false positive screens (n = 78) were analyzed to validate the interpretation obtained from the newly established reference intervals. Results: Calibration curves were linear from 0.005 to 25.0 μM. Ion suppression was evaluated as minimal (2 to 10%). Samples from known patients were used to validate the reference intervals. For C5OH-related disorders, tiglylglycine (TG), TG/acetylglycine (AG) ratio, 3methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG) and 3MCG/AG ratio increased specificity. Propionylglycine (PG) and PG/acetylglycine ratio were two discriminatory markers in the investigation of C3-related disorders. Hexanoylglycine (HG), octanoylglycine (OG), suberylglycine (SG), and the ratios HG/AG, OC/AG and SG/AG were excellent markers of MCADD deficiency. Conclusion: This method shows potential application as a second tier screen in order to reduce the false positive rate for a number of IEM targeted by newborn screening.