Surgical exploration in patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer is often performed without intraoperative image guidance. Although intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) may enhance visualization during resection, this tool has not been investigated in detail until now. Here, we performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of IOUS on surgical strategy and to evaluate whether vascular involvement and radicality of the resection could be correctly assessed with IOUS. IOUS was performed by an experienced abdominal radiologist during surgical exploration in 31 consecutive procedures. IOUS affected surgical strategy by either (i) having no effect, (ii) determining tumor localization, (iii) evaluating vascular involvement or (iv) waiving surgery. Radicality of the resections and vascular contact were determined during pathologic analysis and compared with preoperative imaging and IOUS findings. Overall, IOUS influenced surgical strategy in 61% of procedures. In 21 out of 27 malignant tumors, a radical resection was achieved (78%). Vascular contact was assessed correctly using IOUS in 89% compared with 74% of patients using preoperative imaging. IOUS can help the surgical team to assess the resectability and to visualize the tumor and possible vascular contact in real time during resection. IOUS may therefore increase the likelihood of achieving a radical resection.
|Journal||Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2019|