Purpose: Use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasing in patients with localized prostate cancer, but concerns about early and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity exist after moderately or extremely hypofractionated radiation therapy schemes. Magnetic resonance guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) was clinically introduced in 2014. MrgRT allows for SBRT delivery with smaller uncertainty margins and permits daily adaptive planning. A phase 2 study in patients with localized prostate cancer was performed to study early GI and GU toxicity after SBRT using MRgRT. Methods and Materials: One hundred one patients with clinical stage T1-3bN0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective phase 2 study. All but 4 patients had intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer, and 82.2% received adjuvant hormonal treatment. MRgRT was delivered in 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy to the target volume using daily plan adaptation with simultaneous relative sparing of the urethra to a dose of 6.5 Gy per fraction. Early toxicity was studied using both clinician- (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and patient-reported outcome measurements (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, Quality of Life Questionnaire PR25, and International Prostate Symptom Scoring). Results: The maximum cumulative grade ≥2 early GU and GI toxicity measured by any symptom at any study time point was 23.8% and 5.0%, respectively. No early grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Early grade 3 GU toxicity was 0% and 5.9% according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and scoring systems, respectively, as a result of different grading of radiation cystitis. The low incidence of early GI toxicity was confirmed by patient-reported outcome data. GU grade ≥2 toxicity peaked to 19.8% at the end of MRgRT, followed by a return to the baseline average score at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: This prospective study of MRgRT in patients with localized prostate cancer observed a low incidence of early GI and GU toxicity, both in clinician- and patient-reported outcome measurements.
Bruynzeel, A. M. E., Tetar, S. U., Oei, S. S., Senan, S., Haasbeek, C. J. A., Spoelstra, F. O. B., ... Lagerwaard, F. J.
(2019). A Prospective Single-Arm Phase 2 Study of Stereotactic Magnetic Resonance Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Early toxicity results
. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
(5), 1086-1094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.08.007