OBJECTIVE: Progression to insulin therapy in clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes is highly variable. GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are associated with faster progression, but their predictive value is limited. We aimed to determine if a type 1 diabetes genetic risk score (T1D GRS) could predict rapid progression to insulin treatment over and above GADA testing. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the relationship between T1D GRS, GADA (negative or positive), and rapid insulin requirement (within 5 years) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression in 8,608 participants with clinical type 2 diabetes (onset >35 years and treated without insulin for ≥6 months). T1D GRS was both analyzed continuously (as standardized scores) and categorized based on previously reported centiles of a population with type 1 diabetes (<5th [low], 5th-50th [medium], and >50th [high]). RESULTS: In GADA-positive participants (3.3%), those with higher T1D GRS progressed to insulin more quickly: probability of insulin requirement at 5 years (95% CI): 47.9% (35.0%, 62.78%) (high T1D GRS) vs. 27.6% (20.5%, 36.5%) (medium T1D GRS) vs. 17.6% (11.2%, 27.2%) (low T1D GRS); P = 0.001. In contrast, T1D GRS did not predict rapid insulin requirement in GADA-negative participants (P = 0.4). In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age of diagnosis, BMI, and cohort, T1D GRS was independently associated with time to insulin only in the presence of GADA: hazard ratio per SD increase was 1.48 (1.15, 1.90); P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: A T1D GRS alters the clinical implications of a positive GADA test in patients with clinical type 2 diabetes and is independent of and additive to clinical features.