Addition of lenalidomide to intensive treatment in younger and middle-aged adults with newly diagnosed AML: The HOVON-SAKK-132 trial

Bob Löwenberg*, Thomas Pabst, Johan Maertens, Patrycja Gradowska, Bart J. Biemond, Olivier Spertini, Edo Vellenga, Laimonas Griskevicius, Lidwine W. Tick, Mojca Jongen-Lavrencic, Marinus Van Marwijk Kooy, Marie-Christiane Vekemans, Walter J. F. M. van der Velden, Berna Beverloo, Lucienne Michaux, Carlos Graux, Dries Deeren, Okke De Weerdt, Joost W. J. Van Esser, Mario Bargetzi Saskia K. KleinAlain Gadisseur, Peter E. Westerweel, Hendrik Veelken, Michael Gregor, Tobias Silzle, Dani Ëlle Van Lammeren-Venema, Ine Moors, Dimitri A. Breems, Mels Hoogendoorn, Marie-Cecile J. C. Legdeur, Thomas Fischer, Juergen Kuball, Jan Cornelissen Kimmo Porkka, Gunnar Juliusson, Peter Meyer, Martin Höglund, Bjorn T. Gjertsen, Jeroen J. W. M. Janssen, Gerwin Huls, Jakob Passweg, Jacqueline Cloos, Peter J. M. Valk, Catharina H. M. J. Van Elssen, Markus G. Manz, Yngvar Floisand, Gert J. Ossenkoppele

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Lenalidomide, an antineoplastic and immunomodulatory drug, has therapeutic activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but definitive studies about its therapeutic utility have been lacking. In a phase 3 study, we compared 2 induction regimens in newly diagnosed patients age 18 to 65 years with AML: Idarubicine-cytarabine (cycle 1) and daunorubicin and intermediate-dose cytarabine (cycle 2)without or with lenalidomide (15mg orally on days 1-21). One final consolidation cycle of chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) or allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) was provided according to a prognostic risk and minimal residual disease (MRD)-adapted approach. Event-free survival (EFS; primary end point) and other clinical end points were assessed. A second random assignment in patients in complete response or in complete response with incomplete hematologic recovery after cycle 3 or auto-SCT involved 6 cycles of maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg on days 1-21) or observation. In all, 392 patients were randomly assigned to the control group, and 388 patients were randomly assigned to lenalidomide induction. At a median follow-up of 41 months, the study revealed no differences in outcome between the treatments (EFS, 44% 6 2% standard error and overall survival, 54% 6 2% at 4 years for both arms) although in an exploratory post hoc analysis, a lenalidomide benefit was suggested in SRSF2-mutant AML.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1110-1121
Number of pages12
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2021

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