Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in Iran: A Cost-Effectiveness and Scenario Analysis for an Optimal Treatment Strategy

Amir Ansaripour, Carin A. Uyl-de Groot, W. Ken Redekop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Clinical guidelines have recommended a 1-year trastuzumab regimen as standard care for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; however, this recommendation can have a dramatic impact on total drug expenditures in middle-income countries (MICs). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the Iranian healthcare perspective to find an optimum duration of trastuzumab use in Iran. Method: We compared four treatment strategies comprising chemotherapy and varying durations of trastuzumab use (no trastuzumab, 6, 9 months, and 1 year), and a Markov model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to estimate the costs and effects of the strategies. We then examined the cost effectiveness of the strategies at different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds and ages at onset of treatment. Results: Incremental costs (versus no trastuzumab) were €8826 (6 months), €13,808 (9 months) and €18,588 (12 months), while incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 0.65 (6 months), 0.87 (9 months) and 1.14 (12 months). At a threshold of 3 × gross domestic product (GDP)/capita (€21,000/QALY) and for patients younger than 59 years, the 6-month protocol was most likely to be cost effective (probability of 42%). At a threshold of 4 × GDP/capita (€28,000/QALY), the 6-month and 1-year regimens were essentially equal in cost effectiveness (37 and 35%, respectively). At this WTP threshold, the 6-month and 1-year regimens were optimal strategies only for patients up to 66 and 44 years of age, respectively. Conclusion: In contrast to clinical guidelines, 6 months of trastuzumab may be the most cost-effective option for Iran. The lower absolute WTP threshold and lower life expectancy compared with high-income countries are two crucial parameters in the cost effectiveness of interventions in MICs. It is therefore necessary to strike a balance between maximum population health and maintaining affordability in these countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-103
JournalPharmaco Economics
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

@article{f91be0a6708647b081b6f79c512f2c19,
title = "Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in Iran: A Cost-Effectiveness and Scenario Analysis for an Optimal Treatment Strategy",
abstract = "Introduction: Clinical guidelines have recommended a 1-year trastuzumab regimen as standard care for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; however, this recommendation can have a dramatic impact on total drug expenditures in middle-income countries (MICs). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the Iranian healthcare perspective to find an optimum duration of trastuzumab use in Iran. Method: We compared four treatment strategies comprising chemotherapy and varying durations of trastuzumab use (no trastuzumab, 6, 9 months, and 1 year), and a Markov model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to estimate the costs and effects of the strategies. We then examined the cost effectiveness of the strategies at different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds and ages at onset of treatment. Results: Incremental costs (versus no trastuzumab) were €8826 (6 months), €13,808 (9 months) and €18,588 (12 months), while incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 0.65 (6 months), 0.87 (9 months) and 1.14 (12 months). At a threshold of 3 × gross domestic product (GDP)/capita (€21,000/QALY) and for patients younger than 59 years, the 6-month protocol was most likely to be cost effective (probability of 42{\%}). At a threshold of 4 × GDP/capita (€28,000/QALY), the 6-month and 1-year regimens were essentially equal in cost effectiveness (37 and 35{\%}, respectively). At this WTP threshold, the 6-month and 1-year regimens were optimal strategies only for patients up to 66 and 44 years of age, respectively. Conclusion: In contrast to clinical guidelines, 6 months of trastuzumab may be the most cost-effective option for Iran. The lower absolute WTP threshold and lower life expectancy compared with high-income countries are two crucial parameters in the cost effectiveness of interventions in MICs. It is therefore necessary to strike a balance between maximum population health and maintaining affordability in these countries.",
author = "Amir Ansaripour and {Uyl-de Groot}, {Carin A.} and Redekop, {W. Ken}",
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Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in Iran: A Cost-Effectiveness and Scenario Analysis for an Optimal Treatment Strategy. / Ansaripour, Amir; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A.; Redekop, W. Ken.

In: Pharmaco Economics, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2018, p. 91-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in Iran: A Cost-Effectiveness and Scenario Analysis for an Optimal Treatment Strategy

AU - Ansaripour, Amir

AU - Uyl-de Groot, Carin A.

AU - Redekop, W. Ken

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Introduction: Clinical guidelines have recommended a 1-year trastuzumab regimen as standard care for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; however, this recommendation can have a dramatic impact on total drug expenditures in middle-income countries (MICs). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the Iranian healthcare perspective to find an optimum duration of trastuzumab use in Iran. Method: We compared four treatment strategies comprising chemotherapy and varying durations of trastuzumab use (no trastuzumab, 6, 9 months, and 1 year), and a Markov model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to estimate the costs and effects of the strategies. We then examined the cost effectiveness of the strategies at different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds and ages at onset of treatment. Results: Incremental costs (versus no trastuzumab) were €8826 (6 months), €13,808 (9 months) and €18,588 (12 months), while incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 0.65 (6 months), 0.87 (9 months) and 1.14 (12 months). At a threshold of 3 × gross domestic product (GDP)/capita (€21,000/QALY) and for patients younger than 59 years, the 6-month protocol was most likely to be cost effective (probability of 42%). At a threshold of 4 × GDP/capita (€28,000/QALY), the 6-month and 1-year regimens were essentially equal in cost effectiveness (37 and 35%, respectively). At this WTP threshold, the 6-month and 1-year regimens were optimal strategies only for patients up to 66 and 44 years of age, respectively. Conclusion: In contrast to clinical guidelines, 6 months of trastuzumab may be the most cost-effective option for Iran. The lower absolute WTP threshold and lower life expectancy compared with high-income countries are two crucial parameters in the cost effectiveness of interventions in MICs. It is therefore necessary to strike a balance between maximum population health and maintaining affordability in these countries.

AB - Introduction: Clinical guidelines have recommended a 1-year trastuzumab regimen as standard care for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; however, this recommendation can have a dramatic impact on total drug expenditures in middle-income countries (MICs). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the Iranian healthcare perspective to find an optimum duration of trastuzumab use in Iran. Method: We compared four treatment strategies comprising chemotherapy and varying durations of trastuzumab use (no trastuzumab, 6, 9 months, and 1 year), and a Markov model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to estimate the costs and effects of the strategies. We then examined the cost effectiveness of the strategies at different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds and ages at onset of treatment. Results: Incremental costs (versus no trastuzumab) were €8826 (6 months), €13,808 (9 months) and €18,588 (12 months), while incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 0.65 (6 months), 0.87 (9 months) and 1.14 (12 months). At a threshold of 3 × gross domestic product (GDP)/capita (€21,000/QALY) and for patients younger than 59 years, the 6-month protocol was most likely to be cost effective (probability of 42%). At a threshold of 4 × GDP/capita (€28,000/QALY), the 6-month and 1-year regimens were essentially equal in cost effectiveness (37 and 35%, respectively). At this WTP threshold, the 6-month and 1-year regimens were optimal strategies only for patients up to 66 and 44 years of age, respectively. Conclusion: In contrast to clinical guidelines, 6 months of trastuzumab may be the most cost-effective option for Iran. The lower absolute WTP threshold and lower life expectancy compared with high-income countries are two crucial parameters in the cost effectiveness of interventions in MICs. It is therefore necessary to strike a balance between maximum population health and maintaining affordability in these countries.

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28795341

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