Treatment of rectal cancer patients has been subjected to change over the past thirty years. Total mesorectal excision is considered the cornerstone of rectal cancer treatment, but is also associated with significant morbidity resulting in an impaired quality of life. The addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to surgery has shown to improve survival and local control and may lead to a partial or even complete response (CR). This raises questions regarding the necessity for subsequent radical surgery. After careful patient selection local excision and wait-and-see approaches are explored, aiming to improve quality of life without compromising oncological outcome. A multimodality diagnostic approach for optimal staging is crucial in determining the appropriate neoadjuvant treatment regimen. Adequate endoscopic restaging of rectal tumours after multimodality treatment will aid in selecting patients who are eligible for an organ preserving approach. The role and accuracy of imaging in the detection of the primary tumour, residual rectal cancer or local recurrence seems vital. Alternative neoadjuvant regimens are currently explored to increase the rate of clinical CRs, which may support organ preserving approaches. This review aims to generate insight into the advances in diagnostics and treatment modalities in all stages of rectal cancer and will highlight future studies that may support further implementation of organ preservation treatment in rectal cancer.
Stijns, R. C. H., Tromp, M-S. R., Hugen, N., & de Wilt, J. H. W. (2018). Advances in organ preserving strategies in rectal cancer patients. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 44(2), 220-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2017.11.024