Adverse Plaque Characteristics Relate More Strongly With Hyperemic Fractional Flow Reserve and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Than With Resting Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio

Roel S Driessen, Guus A de Waard, Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Pieter G Raijmakers, Ibrahim Danad, Michiel J Bom, James K Min, Jonathon A Leipsic, Amir Ahmadi, Peter M van de Ven, Juhani Knuuti, Albert C van Rossum, Justin E Davies, Niels van Royen, Jagat Narula, Paul Knaapen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The current substudy of the PACIFIC (Prospective Comparison of Cardiac PET/CT, SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging and CT Coronary Angiography With Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial explores the impact of computed tomography (CT)-derived unfavorable plaque features on both hyperemic and non-hyperemic flow indices.

BACKGROUND: Next to lesion severity, plaque vulnerability as assessed using coronary CT angiography affects fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is associated with imminent acute coronary syndromes. Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has recently emerged as an alternative for FFR to interrogate coronary lesions for ischemia. It is, however, unknown whether vasodilator-free assessment with iFR is associated with plaque stability similarly as FFR.

METHODS: Of 120 patients (62% men, age 58.3 ± 8.6 years) with suspected coronary artery disease, 257 vessels were prospectively evaluated. Each patient underwent 256-slice coronary CT angiography to assess stenosis severity and plaque features (positive remodeling [PR], low attenuation plaque [LAP], spotty calcification [SC], and napkin ring sign [NRS]), as well as intracoronary pressure measurements (FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and pressure ratio during adenosine within the wave-free period [iFRa]). CT-derived plaque characteristics were related to these invasive pressure measurements.

RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were present in 170 (66%) coronary arteries. On a per-vessel basis, luminal stenosis severity was significantly associated with impaired FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and iFRa. Multivariable analysis revealed that FFR and iFR were independently related to ≥70% stenosis (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.09, p = 0.003, respectively) and plaque volume (-0.02, p = 0.020 and -0.02, p = 0.030, respectively). Additionally, PR and SC were also independent predictors of an impaired FFR (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.07, p = 0.021, respectively), but adverse plaque characteristics were not independently related to the vasodilator-free iFR.

CONCLUSIONS: CT-derived vulnerable plaque characteristics are independently associated with hyperemic flow indices as assessed with FFR and iFRa, but not with non-hyperemic indices such as iFR and Pd/Pa. These findings suggest that the effects of hyperemia on pressure-derived indices might depend not only on hemodynamic stenosis severity but also on plaque characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJACC. Cardiovascular imaging
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Aug 2019

Cite this

@article{f9e35b6f642042efa5639367bb57f91c,
title = "Adverse Plaque Characteristics Relate More Strongly With Hyperemic Fractional Flow Reserve and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Than With Resting Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: The current substudy of the PACIFIC (Prospective Comparison of Cardiac PET/CT, SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging and CT Coronary Angiography With Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial explores the impact of computed tomography (CT)-derived unfavorable plaque features on both hyperemic and non-hyperemic flow indices.BACKGROUND: Next to lesion severity, plaque vulnerability as assessed using coronary CT angiography affects fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is associated with imminent acute coronary syndromes. Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has recently emerged as an alternative for FFR to interrogate coronary lesions for ischemia. It is, however, unknown whether vasodilator-free assessment with iFR is associated with plaque stability similarly as FFR.METHODS: Of 120 patients (62{\%} men, age 58.3 ± 8.6 years) with suspected coronary artery disease, 257 vessels were prospectively evaluated. Each patient underwent 256-slice coronary CT angiography to assess stenosis severity and plaque features (positive remodeling [PR], low attenuation plaque [LAP], spotty calcification [SC], and napkin ring sign [NRS]), as well as intracoronary pressure measurements (FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and pressure ratio during adenosine within the wave-free period [iFRa]). CT-derived plaque characteristics were related to these invasive pressure measurements.RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were present in 170 (66{\%}) coronary arteries. On a per-vessel basis, luminal stenosis severity was significantly associated with impaired FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and iFRa. Multivariable analysis revealed that FFR and iFR were independently related to ≥70{\%} stenosis (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.09, p = 0.003, respectively) and plaque volume (-0.02, p = 0.020 and -0.02, p = 0.030, respectively). Additionally, PR and SC were also independent predictors of an impaired FFR (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.07, p = 0.021, respectively), but adverse plaque characteristics were not independently related to the vasodilator-free iFR.CONCLUSIONS: CT-derived vulnerable plaque characteristics are independently associated with hyperemic flow indices as assessed with FFR and iFRa, but not with non-hyperemic indices such as iFR and Pd/Pa. These findings suggest that the effects of hyperemia on pressure-derived indices might depend not only on hemodynamic stenosis severity but also on plaque characteristics.",
author = "Driessen, {Roel S} and {de Waard}, {Guus A} and Stuijfzand, {Wijnand J} and Raijmakers, {Pieter G} and Ibrahim Danad and Bom, {Michiel J} and Min, {James K} and Leipsic, {Jonathon A} and Amir Ahmadi and {van de Ven}, {Peter M} and Juhani Knuuti and {van Rossum}, {Albert C} and Davies, {Justin E} and {van Royen}, Niels and Jagat Narula and Paul Knaapen",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.06.013",
language = "English",
journal = "JACC. Cardiovascular imaging",
issn = "1876-7591",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adverse Plaque Characteristics Relate More Strongly With Hyperemic Fractional Flow Reserve and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Than With Resting Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio

AU - Driessen, Roel S

AU - de Waard, Guus A

AU - Stuijfzand, Wijnand J

AU - Raijmakers, Pieter G

AU - Danad, Ibrahim

AU - Bom, Michiel J

AU - Min, James K

AU - Leipsic, Jonathon A

AU - Ahmadi, Amir

AU - van de Ven, Peter M

AU - Knuuti, Juhani

AU - van Rossum, Albert C

AU - Davies, Justin E

AU - van Royen, Niels

AU - Narula, Jagat

AU - Knaapen, Paul

N1 - Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/8/8

Y1 - 2019/8/8

N2 - OBJECTIVES: The current substudy of the PACIFIC (Prospective Comparison of Cardiac PET/CT, SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging and CT Coronary Angiography With Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial explores the impact of computed tomography (CT)-derived unfavorable plaque features on both hyperemic and non-hyperemic flow indices.BACKGROUND: Next to lesion severity, plaque vulnerability as assessed using coronary CT angiography affects fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is associated with imminent acute coronary syndromes. Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has recently emerged as an alternative for FFR to interrogate coronary lesions for ischemia. It is, however, unknown whether vasodilator-free assessment with iFR is associated with plaque stability similarly as FFR.METHODS: Of 120 patients (62% men, age 58.3 ± 8.6 years) with suspected coronary artery disease, 257 vessels were prospectively evaluated. Each patient underwent 256-slice coronary CT angiography to assess stenosis severity and plaque features (positive remodeling [PR], low attenuation plaque [LAP], spotty calcification [SC], and napkin ring sign [NRS]), as well as intracoronary pressure measurements (FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and pressure ratio during adenosine within the wave-free period [iFRa]). CT-derived plaque characteristics were related to these invasive pressure measurements.RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were present in 170 (66%) coronary arteries. On a per-vessel basis, luminal stenosis severity was significantly associated with impaired FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and iFRa. Multivariable analysis revealed that FFR and iFR were independently related to ≥70% stenosis (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.09, p = 0.003, respectively) and plaque volume (-0.02, p = 0.020 and -0.02, p = 0.030, respectively). Additionally, PR and SC were also independent predictors of an impaired FFR (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.07, p = 0.021, respectively), but adverse plaque characteristics were not independently related to the vasodilator-free iFR.CONCLUSIONS: CT-derived vulnerable plaque characteristics are independently associated with hyperemic flow indices as assessed with FFR and iFRa, but not with non-hyperemic indices such as iFR and Pd/Pa. These findings suggest that the effects of hyperemia on pressure-derived indices might depend not only on hemodynamic stenosis severity but also on plaque characteristics.

AB - OBJECTIVES: The current substudy of the PACIFIC (Prospective Comparison of Cardiac PET/CT, SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging and CT Coronary Angiography With Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial explores the impact of computed tomography (CT)-derived unfavorable plaque features on both hyperemic and non-hyperemic flow indices.BACKGROUND: Next to lesion severity, plaque vulnerability as assessed using coronary CT angiography affects fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is associated with imminent acute coronary syndromes. Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has recently emerged as an alternative for FFR to interrogate coronary lesions for ischemia. It is, however, unknown whether vasodilator-free assessment with iFR is associated with plaque stability similarly as FFR.METHODS: Of 120 patients (62% men, age 58.3 ± 8.6 years) with suspected coronary artery disease, 257 vessels were prospectively evaluated. Each patient underwent 256-slice coronary CT angiography to assess stenosis severity and plaque features (positive remodeling [PR], low attenuation plaque [LAP], spotty calcification [SC], and napkin ring sign [NRS]), as well as intracoronary pressure measurements (FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and pressure ratio during adenosine within the wave-free period [iFRa]). CT-derived plaque characteristics were related to these invasive pressure measurements.RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were present in 170 (66%) coronary arteries. On a per-vessel basis, luminal stenosis severity was significantly associated with impaired FFR, iFR, Pd/Pa, and iFRa. Multivariable analysis revealed that FFR and iFR were independently related to ≥70% stenosis (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.09, p = 0.003, respectively) and plaque volume (-0.02, p = 0.020 and -0.02, p = 0.030, respectively). Additionally, PR and SC were also independent predictors of an impaired FFR (-0.10, p < 0.001 and -0.07, p = 0.021, respectively), but adverse plaque characteristics were not independently related to the vasodilator-free iFR.CONCLUSIONS: CT-derived vulnerable plaque characteristics are independently associated with hyperemic flow indices as assessed with FFR and iFRa, but not with non-hyperemic indices such as iFR and Pd/Pa. These findings suggest that the effects of hyperemia on pressure-derived indices might depend not only on hemodynamic stenosis severity but also on plaque characteristics.

U2 - 10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.06.013

DO - 10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.06.013

M3 - Article

JO - JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

JF - JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

SN - 1876-7591

ER -