Age, Sex and Racial Differences in Cardiac Repolarization and Arrhythmogenesis

Arja Suzanne Vink*, Sally-Ann B. Clur, Pieter G. Postema, Nico A. Blom, Arthur A. M. Wilde

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Age, sex and race have an influence on the cardiac repolarization and therefore the QTc-interval. Racial differences are probably the result of the presence of considerable heterogeneity among race/ethnicity for multiple genetic loci that influence the QT-interval. Age-and sex-related differences in QTc-interval are most likely the result of changes in sex-specific hormones. Although the exact mechanisms and pathophysiology of the effect of sex hormones on the QTc-interval and arrhythmogenesis are not known, testosterone appears to shorten the QTc-interval in males. In females, however, there is a more complex interaction between progesterone and oestrogen. In addition, the autonomic nervous system and gonadotropins may play an important part in this complex interaction.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCardiac Repolarization: Basic Science and Clinical Management
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
ISBN (Electronic)9783030226725
ISBN (Print)9783030226718
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Publication series

NameCardiac Repolarization: Basic Science and Clinical Management

Cite this