An overview of robotic capsules for drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract

Pablo Cortegoso Valdivia, Alexander R. Robertson, Nanne K. H. de Boer, Wojciech Marlicz, Anastasios Koulaouzidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


The introduction of capsule endoscopy two decades ago marked the beginning of the “small bowel revolution”. Since then, the rapid evolution of microtechnology has allowed the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) designed to address some of the needs that are not met by standard drug delivery. To overcome the complex anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, several DDS have been developed, including many prototypes being designed, built and eventually produced with ingenious drug‐release mechanisms and anchoring systems allowing targeted therapy. This review highlights the currently available systems for drug delivery in the GI tract and discusses the needs, limitations, and future considerations of these technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5791
JournalClinical Chemistry
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021

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