Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers: results from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors (TRAIN) study

M. Cesari, S.B. Kritchevsky, H.H. Atkinson, B.W.J.H. Penninx, M. Di Bari, R.P. Tracy, M. Pahor

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BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors seem to be mediated by mechanisms that are partly independent of blood pressure lowering. The present study evaluates effects of an ACE inhibitor (ie, fosinopril) intervention on novel cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Data are from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors (TRAIN) study, a double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolling subjects > or =55 years old with high cardiovascular disease risk profile. Biomarkers of hemostasis (ie, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, D-dimer), inflammation (ie, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), and endothelial function (ie, endothelin 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) were measured at the baseline, at the midterm, and at end of follow-up (after 1 year) clinic visits. Paired t test analyses (after Sidak's adjustment, P <.009) were performed to compare biomarkers modifications after fosinopril/placebo interventions. RESULTS: Mean age of the sample (n = 290, women 43.4%) was 66.0 years old. No significant differences were reported for C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and endothelin 1 levels in the comparisons between fosinopril and placebo interventions. D-dimer was the only biomarker showing a significant difference between fosinopril intervention (median 0.32 microg/mL, interquartile range 0.22-0.52 microg/mL) and placebo (median 0.29 microg/mL, interquartile range 0.20-0.47 microg/mL, P = .007) when analyses were restricted to participants with higher compliance to treatment and receiving the maximum ACE inhibitor dosage. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition does not significantly modify major biomarkers of inflammation, hemostasis, and endothelial function. Further studies should confirm the possible effect of ACE inhibitors on the fibrinolysis pathway
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)334-338
JournalThe American Heart Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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