Antiglioma Immunological Memory in Response to Conditional Cytotoxic/Immune-Stimulatory Gene Therapy: Humoral and Cellular Immunity Lead to Tumor Regression

A.K.M.G. Muhammad, M. Candolfi, G.D. King, K. Yagiz, D. Foulad, Y. Mineharu, K.M. Kroeger, K.A. Treuer, W.S. Nichols, N.S. Sanderson, J. Yang, M. Khayznikov, N. van Rooijen, P.R. Lowenstein, M.G. Castro

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Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly primary brain cancer. Because the tumor kills due to recurrences, we tested the hypothesis that a new treatment would lead to immunological memory in a rat model of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Experimental Design: We developed a combined treatment using an adenovirus (Ad) expressing fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (Flt3L), which induces the infiltration of immune cells into the tumor microenvironment, and an Ad expressing herpes simplex virus-1-thymidine kinase (TK), which kills proliferating tumor cells in the presence of ganciclovir. Results: This treatment induced immunological memory that led to rejection of a second glioblastoma multiforme implanted in the contralateral hemisphere and of an extracranial glioblastoma multiforme implanted intradermally. Rechallenged long-term survivors exhibited anti-glioblastoma multiforme-specific T cells and displayed specific delayed-type hypersensitivity. Using depleting antibodies, we showed that rejection of the second tumor was dependent on CD8(+) T cells. Circulating anti-glioma antibodies were observed when glioblastoma multiforme cells were implanted intradermally in naive rats or in long-term survivors. However, rats bearing intracranial glioblastoma multiforme only exhibited circulating antitumoral antibodies upon treatment with Ad-Flt3L + Ad-TK. This combined treatment induced tumor regression and release of the chromatin-binding protein high mobility group box 1 in two further intracranial glioblastoma multiforme models, that is, Fisher rats bearing intracranial 9L and F98 glioblastoma multiforme cells. Conclusions: Treatment with Ad-Flt3L + Ad-TK triggered systemic anti-glioblastoma multiforme cellular and humoral immune responses, and anti-glioblastoma multiforme immunological memory. Release of the chromatin-binding protein high mobility group box 1 could be used as a noninvasive biomarker of therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma multiforme. The robust treatment efficacy lends further support to its implementation in a phase I clinical trial. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(19):6113-27)
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)6113-6127
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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