Objectives: Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas (RCAVF) are the preferred vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis (HD). Cohort studies from North America revealed that nonmaturation is a significant disadvantage of RCAVFs compared to other VAs. DESIGN: This present retrospective study describes the incidence of nonmaturation of AVFs and functional failure of arteriovenous grafts (AVG) in a multicentre cohort in the Netherlands and attempts to create a prediction model for nonmaturation of RCAVFs. Furthermore, the efficacy of interventions to promote maturation as well as the variability between hemodialysis centers was evaluated. Materials: Medical records from 8 hospitals from 1997 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated for VA type, maturation/primary success and demographics and comorbidities. Methods: A prediction model was created for RCAVF nonmaturation using multivariate logistic regression analysis, selecting significant predictors using backward selection. Discrimination and calibration of the model were assessed. Results: 1383 AVFs and 273 AVGs were included in 1221 patients. Overall nonmaturation was 24% for RCAVFs, and 11% for upper arm AVFs. The functional failure rate for AVGs was 6%. The nonmaturation rate of contralateral RCAVFs after failure of an RCAVF was 22%. Procedures to improve RCAVF maturation were successful in 98/142 cases (69%). Predictors for nonmaturation were female gender, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and a cephalic vein diameter <2.5 mm, but the prediction model lacked sensitivity and specificity predicting individual RCAVF nonmaturation (C-statistic 0.629). Conclusion: Nonmaturation rates are highest for RCAVFs, but nonmaturation could not be predicted with demographic parameters.