Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational study

Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Manon P A J Vugts, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Ferdi Akankan, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo M A Heunks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Physiological dead space (VD/VT) represents the fraction of ventilation not participating in gas exchange. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), VD/VT has prognostic value and can be used to guide ventilator settings. However, VD/VT is rarely calculated in clinical practice, because its measurement is perceived as challenging. Recently, a novel technique to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air (PACO2) using volumetric capnography (VCap) was validated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how VCap and other available techniques to measure PACO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed expired air (PeCO2) affect calculated VD/VT.

METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, 15 post-cardiac surgery patients and 15 patients with ARDS were included. PACO2 was measured using VCap to calculate Bohr dead space or substituted with partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to calculate the Enghoff modification. PeCO2 was measured in expired air using three techniques: Douglas bag (DBag), indirect calorimetry (InCal), and VCap. Subsequently, VD/VT was calculated using four methods: Enghoff-DBag, Enghoff-InCal, Enghoff-VCap, and Bohr-VCap.

RESULTS: PaCO2 was higher than PACO2, particularly in patients with ARDS (post-cardiac surgery PACO2 = 4.3 ± 0.6 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 5.2 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.05; ARDS PACO2 = 3.9 ± 0.8 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 6.9 ± 1.7 kPa, P < 0.05). There was good agreement in PeCO2 calculated with DBag vs. VCap (post-cardiac surgery bias = 0.04 ± 0.19 kPa; ARDS bias = 0.03 ± 0.27 kPa) and relatively low agreement with DBag vs. InCal (post-cardiac surgery bias = -1.17 ± 0.50 kPa; ARDS mean bias = -0.15 ± 0.53 kPa). These differences strongly affected calculated VD/VT. For example, in patients with ARDS, VD/VTcalculated with Enghoff-InCal was much higher than Bohr-VCap (VD/VT Enghoff-InCal = 66 ± 10 % vs. VD/VT Bohr-VCap = 45 ± 7 %; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Different techniques to measure PACO2 and PeCO2 result in clinically relevant mean and individual differences in calculated VD/VT, particularly in patients with ARDS. Volumetric capnography is a promising technique to calculate true Bohr dead space. Our results demonstrate the challenges clinicians face in interpreting an apparently simple measurement such as VD/VT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121
JournalCritical Care
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Cite this

Doorduin, Jonne ; Nollet, Joeke L ; Vugts, Manon P A J ; Roesthuis, Lisanne H ; Akankan, Ferdi ; van der Hoeven, Johannes G ; van Hees, Hieronymus W H ; Heunks, Leo M A. / Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome : a prospective observational study. In: Critical Care. 2016 ; Vol. 20, No. 1.
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title = "Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Physiological dead space (VD/VT) represents the fraction of ventilation not participating in gas exchange. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), VD/VT has prognostic value and can be used to guide ventilator settings. However, VD/VT is rarely calculated in clinical practice, because its measurement is perceived as challenging. Recently, a novel technique to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air (PACO2) using volumetric capnography (VCap) was validated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how VCap and other available techniques to measure PACO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed expired air (PeCO2) affect calculated VD/VT.METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, 15 post-cardiac surgery patients and 15 patients with ARDS were included. PACO2 was measured using VCap to calculate Bohr dead space or substituted with partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to calculate the Enghoff modification. PeCO2 was measured in expired air using three techniques: Douglas bag (DBag), indirect calorimetry (InCal), and VCap. Subsequently, VD/VT was calculated using four methods: Enghoff-DBag, Enghoff-InCal, Enghoff-VCap, and Bohr-VCap.RESULTS: PaCO2 was higher than PACO2, particularly in patients with ARDS (post-cardiac surgery PACO2 = 4.3 ± 0.6 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 5.2 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.05; ARDS PACO2 = 3.9 ± 0.8 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 6.9 ± 1.7 kPa, P < 0.05). There was good agreement in PeCO2 calculated with DBag vs. VCap (post-cardiac surgery bias = 0.04 ± 0.19 kPa; ARDS bias = 0.03 ± 0.27 kPa) and relatively low agreement with DBag vs. InCal (post-cardiac surgery bias = -1.17 ± 0.50 kPa; ARDS mean bias = -0.15 ± 0.53 kPa). These differences strongly affected calculated VD/VT. For example, in patients with ARDS, VD/VTcalculated with Enghoff-InCal was much higher than Bohr-VCap (VD/VT Enghoff-InCal = 66 ± 10 {\%} vs. VD/VT Bohr-VCap = 45 ± 7 {\%}; P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Different techniques to measure PACO2 and PeCO2 result in clinically relevant mean and individual differences in calculated VD/VT, particularly in patients with ARDS. Volumetric capnography is a promising technique to calculate true Bohr dead space. Our results demonstrate the challenges clinicians face in interpreting an apparently simple measurement such as VD/VT.",
keywords = "Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Capnography, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Monitoring, Physiologic, Prospective Studies, Pulmonary Gas Exchange, Respiratory Dead Space, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult, Journal Article, Observational Study",
author = "Jonne Doorduin and Nollet, {Joeke L} and Vugts, {Manon P A J} and Roesthuis, {Lisanne H} and Ferdi Akankan and {van der Hoeven}, {Johannes G} and {van Hees}, {Hieronymus W H} and Heunks, {Leo M A}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1186/s13054-016-1311-8",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
journal = "Critical Care",
issn = "1466-609X",
publisher = "Springer Science + Business Media",
number = "1",

}

Doorduin, J, Nollet, JL, Vugts, MPAJ, Roesthuis, LH, Akankan, F, van der Hoeven, JG, van Hees, HWH & Heunks, LMA 2016, 'Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational study' Critical Care, vol. 20, no. 1, 121. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1311-8

Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome : a prospective observational study. / Doorduin, Jonne; Nollet, Joeke L; Vugts, Manon P A J; Roesthuis, Lisanne H; Akankan, Ferdi; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; van Hees, Hieronymus W H; Heunks, Leo M A.

In: Critical Care, Vol. 20, No. 1, 121, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

T2 - a prospective observational study

AU - Doorduin, Jonne

AU - Nollet, Joeke L

AU - Vugts, Manon P A J

AU - Roesthuis, Lisanne H

AU - Akankan, Ferdi

AU - van der Hoeven, Johannes G

AU - van Hees, Hieronymus W H

AU - Heunks, Leo M A

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - BACKGROUND: Physiological dead space (VD/VT) represents the fraction of ventilation not participating in gas exchange. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), VD/VT has prognostic value and can be used to guide ventilator settings. However, VD/VT is rarely calculated in clinical practice, because its measurement is perceived as challenging. Recently, a novel technique to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air (PACO2) using volumetric capnography (VCap) was validated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how VCap and other available techniques to measure PACO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed expired air (PeCO2) affect calculated VD/VT.METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, 15 post-cardiac surgery patients and 15 patients with ARDS were included. PACO2 was measured using VCap to calculate Bohr dead space or substituted with partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to calculate the Enghoff modification. PeCO2 was measured in expired air using three techniques: Douglas bag (DBag), indirect calorimetry (InCal), and VCap. Subsequently, VD/VT was calculated using four methods: Enghoff-DBag, Enghoff-InCal, Enghoff-VCap, and Bohr-VCap.RESULTS: PaCO2 was higher than PACO2, particularly in patients with ARDS (post-cardiac surgery PACO2 = 4.3 ± 0.6 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 5.2 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.05; ARDS PACO2 = 3.9 ± 0.8 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 6.9 ± 1.7 kPa, P < 0.05). There was good agreement in PeCO2 calculated with DBag vs. VCap (post-cardiac surgery bias = 0.04 ± 0.19 kPa; ARDS bias = 0.03 ± 0.27 kPa) and relatively low agreement with DBag vs. InCal (post-cardiac surgery bias = -1.17 ± 0.50 kPa; ARDS mean bias = -0.15 ± 0.53 kPa). These differences strongly affected calculated VD/VT. For example, in patients with ARDS, VD/VTcalculated with Enghoff-InCal was much higher than Bohr-VCap (VD/VT Enghoff-InCal = 66 ± 10 % vs. VD/VT Bohr-VCap = 45 ± 7 %; P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Different techniques to measure PACO2 and PeCO2 result in clinically relevant mean and individual differences in calculated VD/VT, particularly in patients with ARDS. Volumetric capnography is a promising technique to calculate true Bohr dead space. Our results demonstrate the challenges clinicians face in interpreting an apparently simple measurement such as VD/VT.

AB - BACKGROUND: Physiological dead space (VD/VT) represents the fraction of ventilation not participating in gas exchange. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), VD/VT has prognostic value and can be used to guide ventilator settings. However, VD/VT is rarely calculated in clinical practice, because its measurement is perceived as challenging. Recently, a novel technique to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air (PACO2) using volumetric capnography (VCap) was validated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how VCap and other available techniques to measure PACO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed expired air (PeCO2) affect calculated VD/VT.METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, 15 post-cardiac surgery patients and 15 patients with ARDS were included. PACO2 was measured using VCap to calculate Bohr dead space or substituted with partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to calculate the Enghoff modification. PeCO2 was measured in expired air using three techniques: Douglas bag (DBag), indirect calorimetry (InCal), and VCap. Subsequently, VD/VT was calculated using four methods: Enghoff-DBag, Enghoff-InCal, Enghoff-VCap, and Bohr-VCap.RESULTS: PaCO2 was higher than PACO2, particularly in patients with ARDS (post-cardiac surgery PACO2 = 4.3 ± 0.6 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 5.2 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.05; ARDS PACO2 = 3.9 ± 0.8 kPa vs. PaCO2 = 6.9 ± 1.7 kPa, P < 0.05). There was good agreement in PeCO2 calculated with DBag vs. VCap (post-cardiac surgery bias = 0.04 ± 0.19 kPa; ARDS bias = 0.03 ± 0.27 kPa) and relatively low agreement with DBag vs. InCal (post-cardiac surgery bias = -1.17 ± 0.50 kPa; ARDS mean bias = -0.15 ± 0.53 kPa). These differences strongly affected calculated VD/VT. For example, in patients with ARDS, VD/VTcalculated with Enghoff-InCal was much higher than Bohr-VCap (VD/VT Enghoff-InCal = 66 ± 10 % vs. VD/VT Bohr-VCap = 45 ± 7 %; P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Different techniques to measure PACO2 and PeCO2 result in clinically relevant mean and individual differences in calculated VD/VT, particularly in patients with ARDS. Volumetric capnography is a promising technique to calculate true Bohr dead space. Our results demonstrate the challenges clinicians face in interpreting an apparently simple measurement such as VD/VT.

KW - Aged

KW - Aged, 80 and over

KW - Capnography

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Monitoring, Physiologic

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Pulmonary Gas Exchange

KW - Respiratory Dead Space

KW - Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult

KW - Journal Article

KW - Observational Study

U2 - 10.1186/s13054-016-1311-8

DO - 10.1186/s13054-016-1311-8

M3 - Article

VL - 20

JO - Critical Care

JF - Critical Care

SN - 1466-609X

IS - 1

M1 - 121

ER -