Introduction It is crucial to understand the factors that introduce variability before applying metabolomics to clinical and biomarker research. Objectives We quantified technical and biological variability of both fasting and postprandial metabolite concentrations measured using 1H NMR spectroscopy in plasma samples. Methods In the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (n = 6,671), 148 metabolite concentrations (101 metabolites belonging to lipoprotein subclasses) were measured under fasting and postprandial states (150 minutes after a mixed liquid meal). Technical variability was evaluated among 265 fasting and 851 postprandial samples, with the identical blood plasma sample being measured twice by the same laboratory protocol. Biological reproducibility was assessed by measuring 165 individuals twice across time for evaluation of short- (<6 months) and long-term (>3 years) biological variability. Intra-class coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess variability. The ICCs of the fasting metabolites were compared with the postprandial metabolites using two-sided paired Wilcoxon test separately for short- and long-term measurements. Results Both fasting and postprandial metabolite concentrations showed high technical reproducibility using 1H NMR spectroscopy (median ICC = 0.99). Postprandial metabolite concentrations revealed slightly higher ICC scores than fasting ones in short-term repeat measures (median ICC in postprandial and fasting metabolite concentrations 0.72 versus 0.67, Wilcoxon p-value = 8.0×10−14). Variability did not increase further in a long-term repeat measure, with median ICC in postprandial of 0.64 and in fasting metabolite concentrations 0.66. Conclusion Technical reproducibility is excellent. Biological reproducibility of postprandial metabolite concentrations showed a less or equal variability than fasting metabolite concentrations over time.