Association of food groups with depression and anxiety disorders

Deborah Gibson-Smith, Mariska Bot, Ingeborg A. Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Erik J. Giltay, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with fewer depressive symptoms, however, it is unknown whether this is attributed to some or to all components. We examined the association between the individual food groups of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), in isolation and in combination, with depression and anxiety (symptom severity and diagnosis). Methods: Data from 1634 adults were available from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Eleven energy-adjusted food groups were created from a 238-item food frequency questionnaire. In regression analysis, these were associated in isolation and combination with (1) depressive and anxiety disorders (established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (current disorder n = 414), and (2) depression and anxiety severity [measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Fear Questionnaire (FEAR)]. Results: Overall, the MDS score shows the strongest relationships with depression/anxiety [Diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) 0.77 per SD, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66–0.90, IDS: standardised betas (β) − 0.13, 95% CI − 0.18, − 0.08] and anxiety (BAI: β − 0.11, 95% CI − 0.16, − 0.06, FEAR: β − 0.08, 95% CI − 0.13, − 0.03). Greater consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables was associated with lower depression and anxiety severity, whilst being a non-drinker was associated with higher symptom severity. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with lower fear severity. Non-refined grain consumption was associated with lower odds and being a non-drinker with greater odds of current depression/anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls, these associations persisted after adjustment for other food groups (OR 0.82 per SD, 95% CI 0.71–0.96, OR 1.26 per SD 95% CI 1.08–1.46). Conclusion: We can conclude that non-refined grains, vegetables and alcohol intake appeared to be the driving variables for the associated the total MDS score and depression/anxiety. However, the combined effect of the whole diet remains important for mental health. It should be explored whether an increase consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables may help to prevent or reduce depression and anxiety.
LanguageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

@article{b2274ef6eeb7420f92a2128f1235792f,
title = "Association of food groups with depression and anxiety disorders",
abstract = "Purpose: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with fewer depressive symptoms, however, it is unknown whether this is attributed to some or to all components. We examined the association between the individual food groups of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), in isolation and in combination, with depression and anxiety (symptom severity and diagnosis). Methods: Data from 1634 adults were available from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Eleven energy-adjusted food groups were created from a 238-item food frequency questionnaire. In regression analysis, these were associated in isolation and combination with (1) depressive and anxiety disorders (established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (current disorder n = 414), and (2) depression and anxiety severity [measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Fear Questionnaire (FEAR)]. Results: Overall, the MDS score shows the strongest relationships with depression/anxiety [Diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) 0.77 per SD, 95{\%} confidence interval (95{\%} CI) 0.66–0.90, IDS: standardised betas (β) − 0.13, 95{\%} CI − 0.18, − 0.08] and anxiety (BAI: β − 0.11, 95{\%} CI − 0.16, − 0.06, FEAR: β − 0.08, 95{\%} CI − 0.13, − 0.03). Greater consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables was associated with lower depression and anxiety severity, whilst being a non-drinker was associated with higher symptom severity. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with lower fear severity. Non-refined grain consumption was associated with lower odds and being a non-drinker with greater odds of current depression/anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls, these associations persisted after adjustment for other food groups (OR 0.82 per SD, 95{\%} CI 0.71–0.96, OR 1.26 per SD 95{\%} CI 1.08–1.46). Conclusion: We can conclude that non-refined grains, vegetables and alcohol intake appeared to be the driving variables for the associated the total MDS score and depression/anxiety. However, the combined effect of the whole diet remains important for mental health. It should be explored whether an increase consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables may help to prevent or reduce depression and anxiety.",
author = "Deborah Gibson-Smith and Mariska Bot and Brouwer, {Ingeborg A.} and Marjolein Visser and Giltay, {Erik J.} and Penninx, {Brenda W. J. H.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-019-01943-4",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
publisher = "D. Steinkopff-Verlag",

}

Association of food groups with depression and anxiety disorders. / Gibson-Smith, Deborah; Bot, Mariska; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Visser, Marjolein; Giltay, Erik J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of food groups with depression and anxiety disorders

AU - Gibson-Smith, Deborah

AU - Bot, Mariska

AU - Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

AU - Visser, Marjolein

AU - Giltay, Erik J.

AU - Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with fewer depressive symptoms, however, it is unknown whether this is attributed to some or to all components. We examined the association between the individual food groups of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), in isolation and in combination, with depression and anxiety (symptom severity and diagnosis). Methods: Data from 1634 adults were available from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Eleven energy-adjusted food groups were created from a 238-item food frequency questionnaire. In regression analysis, these were associated in isolation and combination with (1) depressive and anxiety disorders (established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (current disorder n = 414), and (2) depression and anxiety severity [measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Fear Questionnaire (FEAR)]. Results: Overall, the MDS score shows the strongest relationships with depression/anxiety [Diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) 0.77 per SD, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66–0.90, IDS: standardised betas (β) − 0.13, 95% CI − 0.18, − 0.08] and anxiety (BAI: β − 0.11, 95% CI − 0.16, − 0.06, FEAR: β − 0.08, 95% CI − 0.13, − 0.03). Greater consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables was associated with lower depression and anxiety severity, whilst being a non-drinker was associated with higher symptom severity. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with lower fear severity. Non-refined grain consumption was associated with lower odds and being a non-drinker with greater odds of current depression/anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls, these associations persisted after adjustment for other food groups (OR 0.82 per SD, 95% CI 0.71–0.96, OR 1.26 per SD 95% CI 1.08–1.46). Conclusion: We can conclude that non-refined grains, vegetables and alcohol intake appeared to be the driving variables for the associated the total MDS score and depression/anxiety. However, the combined effect of the whole diet remains important for mental health. It should be explored whether an increase consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables may help to prevent or reduce depression and anxiety.

AB - Purpose: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with fewer depressive symptoms, however, it is unknown whether this is attributed to some or to all components. We examined the association between the individual food groups of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), in isolation and in combination, with depression and anxiety (symptom severity and diagnosis). Methods: Data from 1634 adults were available from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Eleven energy-adjusted food groups were created from a 238-item food frequency questionnaire. In regression analysis, these were associated in isolation and combination with (1) depressive and anxiety disorders (established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (current disorder n = 414), and (2) depression and anxiety severity [measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Fear Questionnaire (FEAR)]. Results: Overall, the MDS score shows the strongest relationships with depression/anxiety [Diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) 0.77 per SD, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66–0.90, IDS: standardised betas (β) − 0.13, 95% CI − 0.18, − 0.08] and anxiety (BAI: β − 0.11, 95% CI − 0.16, − 0.06, FEAR: β − 0.08, 95% CI − 0.13, − 0.03). Greater consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables was associated with lower depression and anxiety severity, whilst being a non-drinker was associated with higher symptom severity. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with lower fear severity. Non-refined grain consumption was associated with lower odds and being a non-drinker with greater odds of current depression/anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls, these associations persisted after adjustment for other food groups (OR 0.82 per SD, 95% CI 0.71–0.96, OR 1.26 per SD 95% CI 1.08–1.46). Conclusion: We can conclude that non-refined grains, vegetables and alcohol intake appeared to be the driving variables for the associated the total MDS score and depression/anxiety. However, the combined effect of the whole diet remains important for mental health. It should be explored whether an increase consumption of non-refined grains and vegetables may help to prevent or reduce depression and anxiety.

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30945032

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-019-01943-4

DO - 10.1007/s00394-019-01943-4

M3 - Article

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

T2 - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

ER -