Importance: All events that transpire during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) cannot be adequately reproduced in the operative note. Video recording is already known to add important information regarding this operation. Objective: It is hypothesized that additional audio recordings can provide an even better procedural understanding by capturing the surgeons' considerations. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Simultaneous Video and Audio Recording of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedures (SONAR) trial is a multicenter prospective observational trial conducted in the Netherlands in which operators were requested to dictate essential steps of LC. Elective LCs of patients 18 years and older were eligible for inclusion. Data collection occurred from September 18, 2018, to November 13, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adequacy rates for video recordings and operative note were compared. Adequacy was defined as the competent depiction of a surgical step and expressed as the number of adequate steps divided by the total applicable steps for all cases. In case of discrepancies, in which a step was adequately observed in the video recording but inadequately reported in the operative note, an expert panel analyzed the added value of the audio recording to resolve the discrepancy. Results: A total of 79 patients (49 women [62.0%]; mean [SD] age, 54.3 [15.9] years) were included. Video recordings resulted in higher adequacy for the inspection of the gallbladder (note, 39 of 79 cases [49.4%] vs video, 79 of 79 cases [100%]; P <.001), the inspection of the liver condition (note, 17 of 79 [21.5%] vs video, 78 of 79 cases [98.7%]; P <.001), and the circumferential dissection of the cystic duct and the cystic artery (note, 25 of 77 [32.5%] vs video, 62 of 77 [80.5%]; P <.001). The total adequacy was higher for the video recordings (note, 849 of 1089 observations [78.0%] vs video, 1005 of 1089 observations [92.3%]; P <.001). In the cases of discrepancies between video and note, additional audio recordings lowered discrepancy rates for the inspection of the gallbladder (without audio, 40 of 79 cases [50.6%] vs with audio, 17 of 79 cases [21.5%]; P <.001), the inspection of the liver condition (without audio, 61 of 79 [77.2%] vs with audio, 37 of 79 [46.8%]; P <.001), the circumferential dissection of the cystic duct and the cystic artery (without audio, 43 of 77 cases [55.8%] vs with audio, 17 of 77 cases [22.1%]; P <.001), and similarly for the removal of the first accessory trocar (without audio, 27 of 79 [34.2%] vs with audio, 16 of 79 [20.3%]; P =.02), the second accessory trocar (without audio, 24 of 79 [30.4%] vs with audio, 11 of 79 [13.9%]; P <.001), and the third accessory trocar (without audio, 27 of 79 [34.2%] vs with audio, 14 of 79 [17.7%]; P <.001). The total discrepancy was lower with audio adjustment (without audio, 254 of 1089 observations [23.3%] vs with audio, 128 of 1089 observations [11.8%]; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Audio recording during LC significantly improves the adequacy of depicting essential surgical steps and exhibits lower discrepancies between video and operative note.