Associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent offspring: A prospective cohort study

R. Gaillard, M. Welten, W. H. Oddy, L. J. Beilin, T. A. Mori, V. W.V. Jaddoe, R. C. Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective To assess the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and rates of early-pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and total gestational weight gain with adolescent body fat distribution and cardio-metabolic outcomes. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Western Australia. Population Thousand three hundred and ninety-two mothers and their children. Methods Maternal prepregnancy weight was assessed by questionnaire. Maternal weights at a mean of 16.5 ± 2.2 SD and 34.1 ± 1.5 SD weeks of gestation were obtained from medical records. Offspring adiposity and cardio-metabolic outcomes were assessed at a median age 17.0 years [95% confidence interval (CI) range: 16.7, 17.7]. Main outcome measures Adolescent BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR. Results Higher prepregnancy BMI was associated with higher adolescent BMI, WC, WHR, systolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR levels (P-values <0.05). Adjustment for adolescent current BMI attenuated the associations of prepregnancy BMI with adolescent cardio-metabolic outcomes. Higher weight gain in early-pregnancy, but not mid-pregnancy, was associated with higher adolescent BMI, WC and WHR (P-values <0.05), but not with other cardio-metabolic risk factors. Total gestational weight gain was associated with adolescent BMI and WC (P-values <0.05). Higher prepregnancy BMI and early-pregnancy weight gain were associated with increased risks of the high-metabolic risk cluster in adolescents (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.33, 1.85 and OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47 per SD increase in prepregnancy BMI and early-pregnancy weight gain, respectively). Conclusions Higher maternal prepregnancy BMI and early-pregnancy weight gain rate are associated with an adverse adolescent cardio-metabolic profile. These associations are largely mediated by adolescent BMI. Tweetable abstract Prepregnancy BMI and early-pregnancy WG rate are associated with adverse adolescent cardio-metabolic profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-216
Number of pages10
JournalBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

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