Atrioventricular optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy with quadripolar leads: should we optimize every pacing configuration including multi-point pacing?
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Aims: This study aims to define an atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization method for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead based on intrinsic conduction intervals. Methods and results: Heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block underwent CRT implantation with a quadripolar LV lead. Invasive LV pressure-volume loops were recorded during four biventricular and three multi-point pacing (MPP) settings, using four patient-specific paced AV delays. Haemodynamic response was defined as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared to intrinsic rhythm and was related to the following conduction intervals: right atrial pacing to right ventricular sensing interval (RAp-RVs), Q to LV sensing interval normalized to QRS duration (QLV/QRSd), PR-interval, and P-wave duration. In 44 patients, the largest Δ%SW (104 ± 76%) occurred at a paced AV delay of 128 ± 32 ms, at 47 ± 9% of RAp-RVs. Optimal AV delay of biventricular pacing (126 ± 26 ms) did not differ from MPP (126 ± 21 ms, P = 0.29). Intra-class correlation coefficient between optimal AV delays of different pacing configurations was 0.64 (0.45-0.78, P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, Δ%SW at 50% of RAp-RVs (98 ± 74%) was closer to the maximal achievable Δ%SW increase than a fixed interval of 120 ms (96 ± 73%, P = 0.60). RAp-RVs, QLV/QRSd, PR interval, and P-wave duration were associated with the optimal AV delay in univariate analysis, but only RAp-RVs remained significantly associated in multivariate analysis (R = 0.69). Conclusion: The AV delay that provides highest haemodynamic response is similar for various LV pacing configurations and for MPP. An AV delay ∼50% of RAp-RVs creates an acute haemodynamic response close to the maximal patient-specific response.
van Everdingen, W. M., Zweerink, A., Salden, O. A. E., Cramer, M. J., Doevendans, P. A., van Rossum, A. C., ... Meine, M. (2019). Atrioventricular optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy with quadripolar leads: should we optimize every pacing configuration including multi-point pacing? Europace, 21(1), e11-e19. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy138