Auto-immunity and the gut microbiome in type 1 diabetes: Lessons from rodent and human studies

Coco M. Fuhri Snethlage, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H. van Raalte, Elena Rampanelli, Bruce C. Verchere, Nordin M. J. Hanssen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an auto-immune disease that destructs insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells within the islets of Langerhans. The incidence of T1D has tripled over the last decades, while the pathophysiology of the disease is still largely unknown. Currently, there is no cure for T1D. The only treatment option consists of blood-glucose regulation with insulin injections and intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels. In recent years, perturbations in the ecosystem of the gut microbiome also referred to as dysbiosis, have gained interest as a possible contributing factor in the development of T1D. Changes in the microbiome seem to occur before the onset of T1D associated auto-antibodies. Furthermore, rodent studies demonstrate that administering antibiotics at a young age may accelerate the onset of T1D. This review provides an overview of the research performed on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, interventions, and possible treatment options in the field of the gut microbiome and T1D.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101544
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

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