SummaryChlamydia trachomatis infections are major public health concerns globally. Of particular grave concern is that the majority of persons with anogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic and accordingly not aware of their infection, and this silent infection can subsequently result in severe reproductive tract complications and sequelae. The current review paper provides all background, evidence base and discussions for the 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS 2015). Comprehensive information and recommendations are included regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of anogenital, pharyngeal and conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infections in European countries. However, Chlamydia trachomatis also causes the eye infection trachoma, which is not a sexually transmitted infection. The 2015 European Chlamydia trachomatis guideline provides up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infections; clearer recommendation of using validated nucleic acid amplification tests only for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) Chlamydia trachomatis testing; recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection and recommendations to identify, verify and report Chlamydia trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of Chlamydia trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread.