Bias in protein and potassium intake collected with 24-h recalls (EPIC-Soft) is rather comparable across European populations

Sandra P. Crispim*, Anouk Geelen, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Heinz Freisling, Olga W. Souverein, Paul J.M. Hulshof, Marga C. Ocke, Hendriek Boshuizen, Lene F. Andersen, Jiri Ruprich, Willem De Keizer, Inge Huybrechts, Lionel Lafay, Maria S. De Magistris, Fulvio Ricceri, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Joline W.J. Beulens, Marie Christine Boutron-RuaultAndroniki Naska, Francesca L. Crowe, Heiner Boeing, McTaggart Alison McTaggart, Rudolf Kaaks, van't Veer Pieter van't Veer, Nadia Slimani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: We investigated whether group-level bias of a 24-h recall estimate of protein and potassium intake, as compared to biomarkers, varied across European centers and whether this was influenced by characteristics of individuals or centers. Methods: The combined data from EFCOVAL and EPIC studies included 14 centers from 9 countries (n = 1,841). Dietary data were collected using a computerized 24-h recall (EPIC-Soft). Nitrogen and potassium in 24-h urine collections were used as reference method. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed, including individual-level (e.g., BMI) and center-level (e.g., food pattern index) variables. Results: For protein intake, no between-center variation in bias was observed in men while it was 5.7% in women. For potassium intake, the between-center variation in bias was 8.9% in men and null in women. BMI was an important factor influencing the biases across centers (p<0.01 in all analyses). In addition, mode of administration (p = 0.06 in women) and day of the week (p = 0.03 in men and p = 0.06 in women) may have influenced the bias in protein intake across centers. After inclusion of these individual variables, between-center variation in bias in protein intake disappeared for women, whereas for potassium, it increased slightly in men (to 9.5%). Center-level variables did not influence the results. Conclusion: The results suggest that group-level bias in protein and potassium (for women) collected with 24-h recalls does not vary across centers and to a certain extent varies for potassium in men. BMI and study design aspects, rather than center-level characteristics, affected the biases across centers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1010
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

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