Background: Salivary stones are calcified structures most often found in the main duct of the submandibular or parotid salivary gland. They contain of a core surrounded by laminated layers of organic and inorganic material. Material and Methods: Submandibular and parotid sialoliths (n=155) were collected at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery of a general hospital between February 1982 and September 2012. The weight of the sialoliths was determined and the consistency was subjectively classified. Subsequently, the biochemical composition of the stones was determined by wet chemical methods or FT-IR spectrometry. Age and gender of the patients were retrieved from their medical records. Data were statistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests. Results: Sialoliths are mainly composed of inorganic material. Carbonate apatite was identified in 99% of the stones, phosphate in 88%, calcium in 87%, magnesium in 68%, struvite in 44%, oxalate in 38% and carbonate in 35%. Solid salivary stones contain more frequently struvite than stones with a soft consistency (p=0.05). Larger stones (>100mg) contain more frequently carbonate (p=0.05). Stones from older patients (≥38years) showed an almost significant trend towards more frequent presence of phosphate (p=0.083). Conclusions: The biochemical composition of submandibular and parotid sialoliths is related to stone-related factors, probably to age but not to the gender of the patient.