Current biopsy planning based on contrast-enhanced T1W (CET1W) or FLAIR sequences frequently delivers biopsy samples that are not in concordance with the gross tumor diagnosis. This study investigates whether the quantitative information of transfer constant Ktrans maps derived from T1W dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can help enhance the quality of biopsy target selection in glioma. 28 patients with suspected glioma received MRI including DCE-MRI and a standard neuronavigation protocol of 3D FLAIR- and CET1W data sets (0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol) at 3.0 T. After exclusion of five cases with no Ktrans-elevation, 2-6 biopsy targets were independently selected by a neurosurgeon (samples based on standard imaging) and a neuroradiologist (samples based on kinetic parameter Ktrans) per case and tissue samples corresponding to these targets were collected by a separate independent neurosurgeon. Standard technique and Ktrans-based samples were rated for diagnostic concordance with the gross tumor resection reference diagnosis (67 WHO IV; 24 WHO III and II) by a neuropathologist blinded for selection mode. Ktrans-based sample targets differed from standard technique sample targets in 90/91 cases. More Ktrans-based than standard imaging-based samples could be extracted. Diagnoses from Ktrans-based samples were more frequently concordant with the reference gross tumor diagnoses than those from standard imaging-based samples (WHO IV: 30/39 vs. 11/20; p = 0.08; WHO III/II: 12/13 vs. 6/11; p = 0.06). In 4/5 non-contrast-enhancing gliomas, Ktrans-based selection revealed significantly more accurate samples than standard technique sample-selection (10/12 vs. 2/8 samples; p = 0.02). If Ktrans elevation is present, Ktrans-based biopsy targeting provides significantly more diagnostic tissue samples in non-contrast-enhancing glioma than selection based on CET1W and FLAIR-weighted images alone.