Brain tumors are the second most common form of childhood cancer after leukemia. Most frequently observed symptoms at presentation are headache, nausea and vomiting, abnormalities of gait and coordination, papilledema and seizures. Diagnostics include neuroimaging using MRI and histological classification. The most common pediatric brain tumors are astrocytomas - including optic pathway gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas-, medulloblastomas, ependymomas and craniopharyngiomas. Treatment consists of neurosurgery, (chemo)radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, depending on the diagnosis. The five year survival rate of children with brain tumors has increased from 58 to 74% during the last decades. However, up to 82% of survivors suffer from late effects of disease and treatment. Improvement of classification systems and development of novel treatment strategies should lead to further improvement of survival rates and reduction of late effects.