Adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs) are critically controlled by Toll-like receptor (TLR) function. Little is known about modulation of TLR-specific signaling by other pathogen receptors. Here, we have identified a molecular signaling pathway induced by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN that modulates TLR signaling at the level of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We demonstrated that pathogens trigger DC-SIGN on human DCs to activate the serine and threonine kinase Raf-1, which subsequently leads to acetylation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65, but only after TLR-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Acetylation of p65 both prolonged and increased IL10 transcription to enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine responses. We demonstrated that different pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Candida albicans, measles virus, and human immunodeficiency virus-1 interacted with DC-SIGN to activate the Raf-1-acetylation-dependent signaling pathway to modulate signaling by different TLRs. Thus, this pathway is involved in regulation of adaptive immunity by DCs to bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens.