Background: The role of chronotype, the individual timing of sleep/activity, has been studied in relation to depressive and anxiety disorders. A cross-sectional association between a depressive episode and evening-type has been identified. However, until now the predicting capacity of chronotype concerning persistence of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Our aim is to examine whether a later chronotype in patients with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder can serve as a predictor of a persistent course. Methods: A subsample of patients with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis and chronotype data of the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) was used. Diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders (1-month DSM-IV based diagnosis) were determined at baseline (n = 505). From this group persistence was determined at 2-year (FU2) (persistent course: n = 248, non-persistent course: n = 208) and 4-year follow-up (FU4) (persistent course: n = 151, non-persistent course: n = 264). Chronotype was assessed at baseline with the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Results: A later chronotype did not predict a persistent course of depressive and/or anxiety disorder at FU2 (OR (95% CI) = 0.99 (0.83–1.19), P = 0.92) or at FU4 (OR (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.77–1.15), P = 0.57). Limitations: Persistence was defined as having a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorder at the two-year and four-year follow-up, patients may have remitted and relapsed between assessments. Conclusion: Chronotype, measured as actual sleep timing, of patients with a depressive or anxiety disorder did not predict a persistent course which suggests it might be unsuitable as predictive tool in clinical settings.
Druiven, S. J. M., Knapen, S. E., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Antypa, N., Schoevers, R. A., Riese, H., & Meesters, Y. (2019). Can chronotype function as predictor of a persistent course of depressive and anxiety disorder? Journal of Affective Disorders, 242, 159-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.064