Abstract: Capsular contracture is the leading complication after surgery with breast implants. A lot of progress has been made investigating this complication over the years, and knowledge has been gained on this complication. Currently, the exact cause for capsular contracture is still unclear. It has been hypothesized that immunobiological factors (i.e., immunological and bacterial factors) and several risk factors play a central role in its development. In this paper, we give an overview of the known immunological factors that have been investigated in contracted and non-contracted capsules, as well as the role of bacterial formation around breast implants. We also report on risk factors that might increase the risk of capsular development. Lastly, it provides the latest research on this matter and discusses future perspectives as follow-up research is needed to unravel the pathogenic process leading to capsular contracture. This knowledge is of interest to establish medical therapies in order to prevent such side effects. Overall, capsular contracture seems to be a multifactorial condition consisting of several risk factors. Level of Evidence V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.