Cardiovascular risk factors and COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalised patients: A prospective cohort study

Didier Collard, Nick S. Nurmohamed, Yannick Kaiser, Laurens F. Reeskamp, Tom Dormans, Hazra Moeniralam, Suat Simsek, Renee Douma, Annet Eerens, Auke C. Reidinga, Paul W. G. Elbers, Martijn Beudel, Liffert Vogt, Erik S. G. Stroes, Bert-Jan H. van den Born*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives Recent reports suggest a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in COVID-19 patients, but the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the clinical course of COVID-19 is unknown. We evaluated the time-to-event relationship between hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and COVID-19 outcomes. Design We analysed data from the prospective Dutch CovidPredict cohort, an ongoing prospective study of patients admitted for COVID-19 infection. Setting Patients from eight participating hospitals, including two university hospitals from the CovidPredict cohort were included. Participants Admitted, adult patients with a positive COVID-19 PCR or high suspicion based on CT-imaging of the thorax. Patients were followed for major outcomes during the hospitalisation. CVD risk factors were established via home medication lists and divided in antihypertensives, lipid-lowering therapy and antidiabetics. Primary and secondary outcomes measures The primary outcome was mortality during the first 21 days following admission, secondary outcomes consisted of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and ICU mortality. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to determine the association with CVD risk factors. Results We included 1604 patients with a mean age of 66±15 of whom 60.5% were men. Antihypertensives, lipid-lowering therapy and antidiabetics were used by 45%, 34.7% and 22.1% of patients. After 21-days of follow-up; 19.2% of the patients had died or were discharged for palliative care. Cox regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed that the presence of ≥2 risk factors was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.02), but not with ICU admission. Moreover, the use of ≥2 antidiabetics and ≥2 antihypertensives was associated with mortality independent of age and sex with HRs of, respectively, 2.09 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.80) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.91). Conclusions The accumulation of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes leads to a stepwise increased risk for short-term mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients independent of age and sex. Further studies investigating how these risk factors disproportionately affect COVID-19 patients are warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere045482
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2021

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