CD4 recovery following antiretroviral treatment interruptions in children and adolescents with HIV infection in Europe and Thailand

L. Galli, S. Crichton, C. Buzzoni, T. Goetghebuer, G. Jourdain, A. Judd, N. Klein, M. José Mellado, M. José Mellado, A. Noguera-Julian, C. Kahlert, V. Spoulou, H. Scherpbier, L. Marques, I. J. Collins, D. M. Gibb, M. I. González Tome, M. I. González Tome, J. Warszawski, C. DollfusC. Königs, F. Prata, E. Chiappini, L. Naver, C. Giaquinto, C. Thorne, M. Marczynska, L. Okhonskaia, T. Borkird, P. Attavinijtrakarn, R. Malyuta, A. Volokha, L. Ene, R. Goodall, The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) Study Group in EuroCoord

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Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore factors associated with CD4 percentage (CD4%) reconstitution following treatment interruptions (TIs) of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Data from paediatric HIV-infected cohorts across 17 countries in Europe and Thailand were pooled. Children on combination ART (cART; at least three drugs from at least two classes) for > 6 months before TI of ≥ 30 days while aged < 18 years were included. CD4% at restart of ART (r-ART) and in the long term (up to 24 months after r-ART) following the first TI was modelled using asymptotic regression. Results: In 779 children with at least one TI, the median age at first TI was 10.1 [interquartile range (IQR) 6.4, 13.6] years and the mean CD4% was 27.3% [standard deviation (SD) 11.0%]; the median TI duration was 9.0 (IQR 3.5, 22.5) months. In regression analysis, the mean CD4% was 19.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.3, 20.1%] at r-ART, and 27.1% (26.2, 27.9%) in the long term, with half this increase in the first 6 months. r-ART and long-term CD4% values were highest in female patients and in children aged < 3 years at the start of TI. Long-term CD4% was highest in those with a TI lasting 1 to <3 months, those with r-ART after year 2000 and those with a CD4% nadir ≥ 25% (all P < 0.001). The effect of CD4% nadir during the TI differed significantly (P = 0.038) by viral suppression at the start of the TI; in children with CD4% nadir < 15% during TI, recovery was better in those virally suppressed prior to the TI; viral suppression was not associated with recovery in children with CD4% nadir ≥ 25%. Conclusions: After restart of ART following TI, most children reconstituted well immunologically. Nevertheless, several factors predicted better immunological reconstitution, including younger age and higher nadir CD4% during TI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-472
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

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