Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin-IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin-IELs develop into a lymphoma for which no effective treatment is available. Current evidence indicates that the survival and expansion of these malignant Lin-IELs is driven by epithelial cell-derived IL-15. Like CD, RCDII is strongly associated with HLA-DQ2, suggesting the involvement of HLA-DQ2-restricted gluten-specific CD4+T cells. We now show that gluten-specific CD4+T cells isolated from CD duodenal biopsy specimens produce cytokines able to trigger proliferation of malignant Lin-IEL lines as powerfully as IL-15. Furthermore, we identify TNF, IL-2, and IL-21 as CD4+T-cell cytokines that synergistically mediate this effect. Like IL-15, these cytokines were found to increase the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt and transcription of antiapoptotic mediator bcl-xLSeveral small-molecule inhibitors targeting the JAK/STAT pathway blocked proliferation elicited by IL-2 and IL-15, but only an inhibitor targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway blocked proliferation induced by IL-15 as well as the CD4+T-cell cytokines. Confirming and extending these findings, TNF, IL-2, and IL-21 also synergistically triggered the proliferation of freshly isolated Lin-IELs and CD3-CD56+IELs (NK-IELs) from RCDII as well as non-RCDII duodenal biopsy specimens. These data provide evidence implicating CD4+T-cell cytokines in the pathogenesis of RCDII. More broadly, they suggest that adaptive immune responses can contribute to innate IEL activation during mucosal inflammation.
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 7 Feb 2017|