Cell-surface receptors govern the critical information passage from outside to inside the cell and hence control important cellular decisions such as survival, growth, and differentiation. These receptors, structurally grouped into different families, utilize common intracellular signaling-proteins and pathways, yet promote divergent biological consequences. In rapid processing of extracellular signals to biological outcomes, posttranslational modifications offer a repertoire of protein processing options. Protein ubiquitination was originally identified as a signal for protein degradation through the proteasome system. It is now becoming increasingly recognized that both ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, all evolved from a common ubiquitin structural superfold, are used extensively by the cell and encompass signal tags for many different cellular fates. In this chapter we examine the current understanding of the ubiquitin regulation surrounding the insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling systems, major members of the larger family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and key regulators of fundamental physiological and pathological states.