Cognitive deficits have been reported in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency. We evaluated cognitive deficits simultaneously with parameters for neuronal integrity using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a cross-sectional design. We studied 11 adults (mean age 24.5 years) with childhood-onset GH deficiency, which persisted after reaching final height. All subjects were evaluated after interruption of GH supplementation for at least 3 months. We performed neuropsychological assessment (NPA) using tests evaluating memory, mental processing speed, reading ability and executive functioning. MRS was used to assess brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline ratios. Data were compared with an age-, sex- and education-matched control group (n=9, mean age 27.3 years). NPA demonstrated attenuated performance of the patients in the delayed verbal memory recall score (P<0.05) and the trail making A test (P<0.05), a measure of planning of behavior, processing speed and attention. Other neuropsychological tests were not affected. NAA/choline ratios were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in GH deficient subjects. Specific cognitive defects indicating affected memory and attention were found in patients with childhood-onset GH deficiency. These defects occur simultaneously with reduced neuronal integrity.