Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development: An Iranian Multicenter Study

Behzad S. Khorashad, Ghasem M. Roshan, Alistair G. Reid, Zahra Aghili, Maliheh Dadgar Moghadam, Behnaz Khazai, Mehran Hiradfar, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Nosrat Ghaemi, Ali Talaei, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Azadeh Aarabi, Samira Dastmalchi, Tim C. van de Grift

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the typical genetic and hormonal profiles are affected and thereby the usual process of sexual differentiation. Most of these studies, however, have been conducted in Western countries. In the present study, preschool sex-typed activities of Iranian individuals with DSD and their age-matched non-affected male and female relatives were assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI) modified for retrospective self-report. A total of 192 individuals participated in our study, including 33 46,XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; M age = 10.36, SD = 5.52), 15 46,XY individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS; M age = 19.8, SD = 7.14), and 16 46,XY individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency type-2 (5α-RD-2; M age = 17.31, SD = 7.28), as well as one age-matched non-affected male and female relative for each patient. With regard to PSAI scores, male-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and male controls reported similar levels of male-typical childhood play. Female-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and CAH showed comparable scores: significantly less masculine and more feminine than male controls, but significantly more masculine and less feminine than females with CAIS and female controls. These findings support the role of androgens in the development of sex-typical childhood play behavior, with those being exposed to higher levels of fetal functional androgens expressing more masculine behavior at preschool ages.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2287-2298
Number of pages12
JournalArchives of Sexual Behavior
Volume47
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

Khorashad, Behzad S. ; Roshan, Ghasem M. ; Reid, Alistair G. ; Aghili, Zahra ; Moghadam, Maliheh Dadgar ; Khazai, Behnaz ; Hiradfar, Mehran ; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan ; Ghaemi, Nosrat ; Talaei, Ali ; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza ; Aarabi, Azadeh ; Dastmalchi, Samira ; van de Grift, Tim C. / Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development : An Iranian Multicenter Study. In: Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2018 ; Vol. 47, No. 8. pp. 2287-2298.
@article{ed3783bacf2e4d6bae9d3713cb5023d2,
title = "Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development: An Iranian Multicenter Study",
abstract = "Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the typical genetic and hormonal profiles are affected and thereby the usual process of sexual differentiation. Most of these studies, however, have been conducted in Western countries. In the present study, preschool sex-typed activities of Iranian individuals with DSD and their age-matched non-affected male and female relatives were assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI) modified for retrospective self-report. A total of 192 individuals participated in our study, including 33 46,XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; M age = 10.36, SD = 5.52), 15 46,XY individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS; M age = 19.8, SD = 7.14), and 16 46,XY individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency type-2 (5α-RD-2; M age = 17.31, SD = 7.28), as well as one age-matched non-affected male and female relative for each patient. With regard to PSAI scores, male-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and male controls reported similar levels of male-typical childhood play. Female-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and CAH showed comparable scores: significantly less masculine and more feminine than male controls, but significantly more masculine and less feminine than females with CAIS and female controls. These findings support the role of androgens in the development of sex-typical childhood play behavior, with those being exposed to higher levels of fetal functional androgens expressing more masculine behavior at preschool ages.",
author = "Khorashad, {Behzad S.} and Roshan, {Ghasem M.} and Reid, {Alistair G.} and Zahra Aghili and Moghadam, {Maliheh Dadgar} and Behnaz Khazai and Mehran Hiradfar and Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh and Nosrat Ghaemi and Ali Talaei and Abbaszadegan, {Mohammad Reza} and Azadeh Aarabi and Samira Dastmalchi and {van de Grift}, {Tim C.}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1007/s10508-018-1281-9",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
pages = "2287--2298",
journal = "Archives of Sexual Behavior",
issn = "0004-0002",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "8",

}

Khorashad, BS, Roshan, GM, Reid, AG, Aghili, Z, Moghadam, MD, Khazai, B, Hiradfar, M, Afkhamizadeh, M, Ghaemi, N, Talaei, A, Abbaszadegan, MR, Aarabi, A, Dastmalchi, S & van de Grift, TC 2018, 'Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development: An Iranian Multicenter Study' Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 2287-2298. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1281-9

Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development : An Iranian Multicenter Study. / Khorashad, Behzad S.; Roshan, Ghasem M.; Reid, Alistair G.; Aghili, Zahra; Moghadam, Maliheh Dadgar; Khazai, Behnaz; Hiradfar, Mehran; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Talaei, Ali; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Aarabi, Azadeh; Dastmalchi, Samira; van de Grift, Tim C.

In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2018, p. 2287-2298.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Gender Change in Individuals with 46,XY and 46,XX Disorders of Sex Development

T2 - An Iranian Multicenter Study

AU - Khorashad, Behzad S.

AU - Roshan, Ghasem M.

AU - Reid, Alistair G.

AU - Aghili, Zahra

AU - Moghadam, Maliheh Dadgar

AU - Khazai, Behnaz

AU - Hiradfar, Mehran

AU - Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan

AU - Ghaemi, Nosrat

AU - Talaei, Ali

AU - Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

AU - Aarabi, Azadeh

AU - Dastmalchi, Samira

AU - van de Grift, Tim C.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the typical genetic and hormonal profiles are affected and thereby the usual process of sexual differentiation. Most of these studies, however, have been conducted in Western countries. In the present study, preschool sex-typed activities of Iranian individuals with DSD and their age-matched non-affected male and female relatives were assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI) modified for retrospective self-report. A total of 192 individuals participated in our study, including 33 46,XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; M age = 10.36, SD = 5.52), 15 46,XY individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS; M age = 19.8, SD = 7.14), and 16 46,XY individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency type-2 (5α-RD-2; M age = 17.31, SD = 7.28), as well as one age-matched non-affected male and female relative for each patient. With regard to PSAI scores, male-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and male controls reported similar levels of male-typical childhood play. Female-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and CAH showed comparable scores: significantly less masculine and more feminine than male controls, but significantly more masculine and less feminine than females with CAIS and female controls. These findings support the role of androgens in the development of sex-typical childhood play behavior, with those being exposed to higher levels of fetal functional androgens expressing more masculine behavior at preschool ages.

AB - Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the typical genetic and hormonal profiles are affected and thereby the usual process of sexual differentiation. Most of these studies, however, have been conducted in Western countries. In the present study, preschool sex-typed activities of Iranian individuals with DSD and their age-matched non-affected male and female relatives were assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI) modified for retrospective self-report. A total of 192 individuals participated in our study, including 33 46,XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; M age = 10.36, SD = 5.52), 15 46,XY individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS; M age = 19.8, SD = 7.14), and 16 46,XY individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency type-2 (5α-RD-2; M age = 17.31, SD = 7.28), as well as one age-matched non-affected male and female relative for each patient. With regard to PSAI scores, male-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and male controls reported similar levels of male-typical childhood play. Female-identifying participants with 5α-RD-2 and CAH showed comparable scores: significantly less masculine and more feminine than male controls, but significantly more masculine and less feminine than females with CAIS and female controls. These findings support the role of androgens in the development of sex-typical childhood play behavior, with those being exposed to higher levels of fetal functional androgens expressing more masculine behavior at preschool ages.

UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85052496633&origin=inward

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30128981

U2 - 10.1007/s10508-018-1281-9

DO - 10.1007/s10508-018-1281-9

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 2287

EP - 2298

JO - Archives of Sexual Behavior

JF - Archives of Sexual Behavior

SN - 0004-0002

IS - 8

ER -