Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Biomarkers for Dietary Intake across Subgroups: The CODAM and Hoorn Studies

Anne J. Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Sabine E. M. de Hoon, Edith J. M. Feskens, Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh, Carla J. van der Kallen, Peter L. Zock, Helga Refsum, Christian A. Drevon, Amany Elshorbagy, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek

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Aims: To evaluate whether participant characteristics and way of expressing circulating fatty acids (FA) influence the strengths of associations between self-reported intake and circulating levels of linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in pooled data from the CODAM (n = 469) and Hoorn (n = 702) studies. Circulating FA were measured by gas liquid chromatography and expressed as proportions (% of total FA) and concentrations (μg/mL). Dietary intakes were calculated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Effects of participant characteristics on associations between dietary and circulating FA were calculated using interaction analyses. Results: Standardized regression coefficients between dietary FA and proportions of circulating FA (% of total FA) were LA β = 0.28, ALA β = 0.13, EPA β = 0.34, and DHA β = 0.45. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and presence of CVD influenced associations for LA; gender influenced LA, EPA, and DHA; alcohol intake influenced LA and DHA; and glucose tolerance status influenced ALA (p values interaction <0.05). Coefficients for circulating FA as concentrations were LA β = 0.19, ALA β = 0.10, EPA β = 0.31, and DHA β = 0.41. Conclusions: This study suggests that characteristics such as BMI, alcohol intake, and expressing circulating FA as proportions or concentrations, influence associations between dietary and circulating FA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-125
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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