The role of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)1A receptor activation in the sexual side-effects, in particular delayed ejaculation, of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was studied. Male Wistar rats were treated for 15 days with vehicle, the SSRI citalopram (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1- piperazinyl] ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) cyclohexane carboxamide 3HCL (WAY 100635, 0.1 mg/kg/ day s.c.), or both drugs combined. Sexual behavior was assessed weekly. One h after the last sexual behavior test, rat brains were processed for Fos-immunohistochemistry. Acute and chronic citalopram mildly inhibited ejaculation, which was strongly augmented by co-administration of WAY 100635. WAY 100635 alone did not alter sexual behavior. Brain sites associated with ejaculation showed reduced Fos-immunoreactivity in rats treated with both citalopram and WAY 100635. Citalopram reduced Fos-immunoreactivity in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, an area that might link serotonergic neurotransmission to ejaculation.