Purpose: The purpose of this review is to systematically analyse current literature on the use of allografts in the surgical treatment of foot and ankle disorders in adult patients. Based on this study, we propose evidence-based recommendations. Methods: The database for PubMed was searched for all published articles. No timeframe restrictions were applied. Clinical studies eligible for inclusion met the following criteria: performed on patients over 18 years old; subject to surgical treatment of foot and ankle disorders; with report on the outcome of the use of allografts; with a report and assessment of pain and function, or equivalent; minimum follow-up of 1 year was required. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies for full-text analysis from title and abstract. 107 studies were included from 1113 records. Studies were grouped according to surgical indications into ten categories: musculoskeletal tumours (n = 16), chronic ankle instability (n = 15), ankle arthritis (n = 14), osteochondral lesions of the talus (n = 12), Achilles tendon defects (n = 11), other tendon defects (n = 9), fusions (n = 9), fractures (n = 8), hallux rigidus (n = 3) and other indications (n = 10). Results: Most studies displayed evidence level of IV (n = 57) and V (n = 39). There was one level I, one level II and nine level III studies. Most studies reported allografting as a good option (n = 99; 92.5%). Overall complication rate was 17% (n = 202). Conclusions: Fair evidence (Grade B) was found in favour of the use of allografts in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction or treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Fair evidence (Grade B) was found against the use of allogeneic MSCs in tibiotalar fusions. Level of evidence: V.
Diniz, P., Pacheco, J. C., Flora, M., Quintero, D., Stufkens, S., Kerkhoffs, G., ... Pereira, H. L. (2019). Clinical applications of allografts in foot and ankle surgery. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 27(6), 1847-1872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-019-05362-0