Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We compared survival and clinical characteristics of survivors with SMNs (sarcoma, breast cancer, or melanoma) and a population-based sample of similar first malignant neoplasm (FMN) patients. Methods: We assembled three case series of solid SMNs observed in a cohort of 5-year Dutch childhood cancer survivors diagnosed 1963–2001 and followed until 2014: sarcoma (n = 45), female breast cancer (n = 41), and melanoma (n = 17). Each SMN patient was sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched to 10 FMN patients in the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry. We compared clinical and histopathological characteristics by Fisher’s exact tests and survival by multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression analyses. Results: Among sarcoma-SMN patients, overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23–2.87] and sarcoma-specific mortality (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.16–3.13) were significantly worse compared to sarcoma-FMN patients (foremost for soft-tissue sarcoma), with 15-year survival rates of 30.8% and 61.6%, respectively. Overall survival did not significantly differ for breast-SMN versus breast-FMN patients (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.54–2.37), nor for melanoma-SMN versus melanoma-FMN patients (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.10–5.00). No significant differences in tumor characteristics were observed between breast-SMN and breast-FMN patients. Breast-SMN patients were treated more often with mastectomy without radiotherapy/chemotherapy compared to breast-FMN patients (17.1% vs. 5.6%). Conclusions: Survival of sarcoma-SMN patients is worse than sarcoma-FMN patients. Although survival and tumor characteristics appear similar for breast-SMN and breast-FMN patients, treatment differs; breast-SMN patients less often receive breast-conserving therapy. Larger studies are necessary to substantiate these exploratory findings.