Haemodiafiltration (HDF) combines diffusive and convective solute removal in a single treatment session. HDF provides a greater removal of higher molecular weight uraemic retention solutes than conventional high-flux haemodialysis (HD). Recently completed randomized clinical trials suggest better patient survival with online HDF. The treatment is mainly used in Europe and Japan. This review gives a brief overview of the presently available evidence of the effects of HDF on clinical end points, it speculates on possible mechanisms of a beneficial effect of HDF as compared with standard HD and ends with some perspectives for the future.