Clinical Experience With Performing Esophageal Function Testing in Children

Marinde van Lennep, Marin L. Leijdekkers, Jac M. Oors, Marc A. Benninga, Michiel P. van Wijk, Maartje M. J. Singendonk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVES: Pediatric high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hour pH-impedance with/without ambulatory manometry (pH-MII+/-mano) tests are generally performed using adult-derived protocols. We aimed to assess the feasibility of these protocols in children, the occurrence of patient-related imperfections and their influence on test interpretability. METHODS: Esophageal function tests performed between 2015 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All tests were subcategorized into uninterpretable or interpretable tests (regardless of occurrence of patient-related imperfections). For HRM, the following patient-related imperfections were scored: patient-related artefacts, multiple swallowing and/or inability to establish baseline characteristics. For pH-MII(+/-mano), incorrect symptom registration and/or premature catheter removal were scored. Results were compared between age-groups (0-3, 4-12, and >12 years). RESULTS: In total 106 HRM, 60 pH-MII, and 23 pH-MII-mano could be fully analyzed. Of these, 94.8% HRM, 91.9% pH-MII, and 95.7% pH-MII-mano were interpretable. Overall, HRM contained imperfections in 78.3% overall and in 8/8 (100%) in the youngest age group, 36/42 (85.7%) in 4 to 12 years and in 37/56 (66.1%) in children above 12 years; P = 0.011. These imperfections led to uninterpretable results in 4 HRM (3.8%), of which 3 were in the youngest age group (3/8, 37.5%). Imperfections were found in 10% of pH-MII and 17.4% of pH-MII-mano. These led to uninterpretable results in 5.0% and 4.3%, respectively. No age-effect was found. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal function tests in children are interpretable in more than 90% overall. In children under the age of 4 years, all patients had imperfect HRM and 3/8 tests were uninterpretable. HRM in older children and pH-MII+/-mano were interpretable in the vast majority.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021

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