IMPORTANCE: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive abilities of children of EP/VP birth (EP/VP children) and the role of perinatal and demographic risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched without language restriction (last search March 2, 2017). Key search terms included preterm, low birth weight, and intelligence. STUDY SELECTION: Peer-reviewed studies reporting intelligence scores of EP/VP children (<32 weeks of gestation) and full-term controls at age 5 years or older, born in the antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant era, were included. A total of 268 studies met selection criteria, of which 71 covered unique cohorts. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS MOOSE: guidelines were followed. Data were independently extracted by 2 researchers. Standardized mean differences in intelligence per study were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity in effect size across studies was studied using multivariate, random-effects meta-regression analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcome was intelligence. Covariates included gestational age, birth weight, birth year, age at assessment, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, small for gestational age, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and postnatal corticosteroid use. RESULTS: The 71 included studies comprised 7752 EP/VP children and 5155 controls. Median gestational age was 28.5 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 2.4 weeks) and the mean age at assessment ranged from 5.0 to 20.1 years. The median proportion of males was 50.0% (IQR, 8.7%). Preterm children had a 0.86-SD lower IQ compared with controls (95% CI, -0.94 to - 0.78, P <.001). Results were heterogeneous across studies (I2 = 74.13; P <.001). This heterogeneity could not be explained by birth year of the cohort. Multivariate meta-regression analysis with backward elimination revealed that BPD explained 65% of the variance in intelligence across studies, with each percent increase in BPD rate across studies associated with a 0.01-SD decrease in IQ (0.15 IQ points) (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Extremely or very preterm children born in the antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant era show large deficits in intelligence. No improvement in cognitive outcome was observed between 1990 and 2008. These findings emphasize that improving outcomes after EP/VP birth remains a major challenge. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was found to be a crucial factor for cognitive outcome. Lowering the high incidence of BPD may be key to improving long-term outcomes after EP/VP birth.
Twilhaar, E. S., Wade, R. M., de Kieviet, J. F., van Goudoever, J. B., van Elburg, R. M., & Oosterlaan, J. (2018). Cognitive outcomes of children born extremely or very preterm since the 1990s and associated risk factors: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(4), 361-367. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5323