The subject of colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), subdivided into well-differentiated NENs, termed neuroendocrine tumours (NETs; grade (G) 1 and 2), and poorly differentiated NENs, termed neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs; G3) according to the 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, has arguably not had as much attention or study as NENs occurring in other sites. Colorectal NETs and NECs are however easier to study than many others since they are usually not difficult to remove and are increasingly detected because of intensified colorectal cancer screening and surveillance programmes. Colorectal NETs and NECs show site-specific heterogeneity with variable behaviour and different therapeutic options; these various aspects provide unique challenges. Because of bowel cancer screening programmes, colorectal NENs, like conventional adenocarcinomas, may be diagnosed at a stage that is associated with improved survival. In this article we intend to describe and define areas of unmet needs relating to the epidemiology, classification, pathology, diagnosis and therapy of colorectal NETs (including NETs G3), colorectal NECs, and finally, mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) by reviewing and discussing the relevant literature.
Ramage, J. K., Valle, J. W., Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M., Sundin, A., Pascher, A., Couvelard, A., & Kloeppel, G. (2019). Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: Areas of unmet need. Neuroendocrinology, 108(1), 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1159/000493767