The aim of the study was to estimate and to compare effective doses in the elbow region resulting from four different x-ray imaging modalities. Absorbed organ doses were measured using 11 metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters that were placed in a custom-made anthropomorphic elbow RANDO phantom. Examinations were performed using Shimadzu FH-21 HR radiography device, Siemens Sensation Open 24-slice MSCT-device, NewTom 5G CBCT device, and Planmed Verity CBCT device, and the effective doses were calculated according to ICRP 103 recommendations. The effective dose for the conventional radiographic device was 1.5 µSv. The effective dose for the NewTom 5G CBCT ranged between 2.0 and 6.7 µSv, for the Planmed Verity CBCT device 2.6 µSv and for the Siemens Sensation MSCT device 37.4 µSv. Compared with conventional 2D radiography, this study demonstrated a 1.4–4.6 fold increase in effective dose for CBCT and 25-fold dose for standard MSCT protocols. When compared with 3D CBCT protocols, the study showed a 6-19 fold increase in effective dose using a standard MSCT protocol. CBCT devices offer a feasible low-dose alternative for elbow 3D imaging when compared to MSCT.