Comparison of 3-Dimensional and Augmented Reality Kidney Models With Conventional Imaging Data in the Preoperative Assessment of Children With Wilms Tumors

Lianne M. Wellens, Jene Meulstee, Cornelis P. van de Ven, C. E. J. Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Annemieke S. Littooij, Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marta Fiocco, Anne C. Rios, Thomas Maal, Marc H. W. A. Wijnen

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Importance: Nephron-sparing surgery can be considered in well-defined cases of unilateral and bilateral Wilms tumors, but the surgical procedure can be very challenging for the pediatric surgeon to perform. Objective: To assess the added value of personalized 3-dimensional (3-D) kidney models derived from conventional imaging data to enhance preoperative surgical planning. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a survey study, the conventional imaging data of 10 Dutch children with Wilms tumors were converted to 3-D prints and augmented reality (AR) holograms and a panel of pediatric oncology surgeons (n = 7) assessed the quality of the different imaging methods during preoperative evaluation. Kidney models were created with 3-D printing and AR using a mixed reality headset for visualization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in the assessment of 4 anatomical structures (tumor, arteries, veins, and urinary collecting structures) using questionnaires. A Likert scale measured differences between the imaging methods, with scores ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). Results: Of the 10 patients, 7 were girls, and the mean (SD) age was 3.7 (1.7) years. Compared with conventional imaging, the 3-D print and the AR hologram models were evaluated by the surgeons to be superior for all anatomical structures: tumor (median scores for conventional imaging, 4.07; interquartile range [IQR], 3.62-4.15 vs 3-D print, 4.67; IQR, 4.14-4.71; P = .008 and AR hologram, 4.71; IQR, 4.26-4.75; P = .002); arteries (conventional imaging, 3.62; IQR, 3.43-3.93 vs 3-D print, 4.54; IQR, 4.32-4.71; P = .002 and AR hologram, 4.83; IQR, 4.64-4.86; P < .001), veins (conventional imaging, 3.46; IQR 3.39-3.62 vs 3-D print, 4.50; IQR, 4.39-4.68; P < .001 and AR hologram, 4.83; IQR, 4.71-4.86; P < .001), and urinary collecting structures (conventional imaging, 2.76; IQR, 2.42-3.00 vs 3-D print, 3.86; IQR, 3.64-4.39; P < .001 and AR hologram, 4.00; IQR, 3.93-4.58; P < .001). There were no differences in anatomical assessment between the two 3-D techniques (the 3-D print and AR hologram). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 3-D kidney models were associated with improved anatomical understanding among the surgeons and can be helpful in future preoperative planning of nephron-sparing surgery for Wilms tumors. These models may be considered as a supplementary visualization in clinical care.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e192633
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes

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