Background: For surgical endometriosis, treatment key is to properly identify the peritoneal lesions. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate if advanced imaging improves the detection rate by comparing narrow-band imaging (NBI), near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green (NIR-ICG), or three-dimensional white-light imaging (3D), to conventional two-dimensional white-light imaging (2D) for the detection of peritoneal endometriotic lesions. Methods: This study was a prospective, single-center, randomized within-subject, clinical trial. The trial was conducted at Amsterdam UMC—Location VUmc, a tertiary referral hospital for endometriosis. 20 patients with ASRM stage III–IV endometriosis, scheduled for elective laparoscopic treatment of their endometriosis, were included. During laparoscopy, the pelvic region was systematically inspected with conventional 2D white-light imaging followed by inspection with NBI, NIR-ICG, and 3D imaging in a randomized order. Suspected endometriotic lesions and control biopsies of presumably healthy peritoneum were taken for histological examination. The pathologist was blinded for the method of laparoscopic detection. Sensitivity and specificity rates of the enhanced imaging techniques were analyzed. McNemar’s test was used to compare sensitivity to 2D white-light imaging and Method of Tango to assess non-inferiority of specificity. Results: In total, 180 biopsies were taken (117 biopsies from lesions suspected for endometriosis; 63 control biopsies). 3D showed a significantly improved sensitivity rate (83.5% vs. 75.8%, p = 0.016) and a non-inferior specificity rate (82.4% vs. 84.7%, p = 0.009) when compared to 2D white-light imaging. The single use of NBI or NIR-ICG showed no improvement in the detection of endometriosis. Combining the results of 3D and NBI resulted in a sensitivity rate of 91.2% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Enhanced laparoscopic imaging with 3D white light, combined with NBI, improves the detection rate of peritoneal endometriosis when compared to conventional 2D white-light imaging. The use of these imaging techniques enables a more complete laparoscopic resection of endometriosis.