Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of women who were initially managed by intrauterine balloon tamponade or uterine artery embolization because of persistent postpartum hemorrhage demanding an immediate intervention to control bleeding. Material and methods: Propensity score-matched cohort study including women who had intrauterine balloon tamponade or uterine artery embolization as initial management strategy to control persistent postpartum hemorrhage, that is, refractory to first-line therapy combined with at least one uterotonic agent. The primary outcome measure was a composite of peripartum hysterectomy and/or maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes measures were total volume of blood loss and total number of packed red blood cells transfused. Results: Our 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort comprised of 50 women who had intrauterine balloon tamponade and 50 women who underwent uterine artery embolization at a blood loss between 1000 and 7000 mL. There was no statistically significant difference in the hysterectomy risk between the two groups (n = 6 in each group, odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI].30-3.34), in total volume of blood loss (median 4500 mL, interquartile range [IQR] 3600-5400) for balloon vs 4000 mL (IQR 3250-5000) for embolization, P = 0.382) or in total units of packed red blood cells transfused (median 7 (IQR 5-10) for balloon vs 6 [IQR 4-9] for embolization, P = 0.319). Fifteen women (30%) who were initially managed by an intrauterine balloon still underwent uterine artery embolization, of whom one had an embolization-related thrombo-embolic event. Maternal mortality occurred in neither of the intervention groups. Conclusions: No difference in the risk of peripartum hysterectomy and/or maternal death was observed between women who had intrauterine balloon tamponade and women who underwent uterine artery embolization as an initial management for persistent postpartum hemorrhage. Although this study was underpowered to demonstrate equivalence, our study design provides a framework for future research in which intrauterine balloon tamponade may prove to be a suitable intervention of first choice in the management of persistent postpartum hemorrhage.