Introduction Therapeutic hypothermia improves outcome after perinatal asphyxia. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a screening tool to detect neurodevelopmental delay. In this study we examined the outcome of patients with perinatal asphyxia (defined as Apgar score <5 at 10 min, or continued need for resuscitation, or pH < 7.00 in umbilical cord or within one hour after birth) with and without therapeutic hypothermia treatment at the age of four years. Methods Cohort study of patients with perinatal asphyxia admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Units of the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam and the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht in the year 2008. Parents were asked to fill out the 48 months Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). In Wilhelmina Children's Hospital treatment with therapeutic hypothermia was implemented in 2008, in the VU University Medical Center in 2009, providing a historical cohort. Results/Discussion Twenty-three questionnaires were evaluated. Response rate of questionnaires for the VU Medical Center was 63% (n = 10) and Wilhelmina's Childrens Hospital 93% (n = 13). No significant differences were found in the mean scores between both groups. However, the untreated group scored more frequently under the −2 SD threshold. In the fine motor skills domain the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.031). In the treated group no patients developed cerebral palsy and in the untreated group two patients developed cerebral palsy. Conclusion In this study patients treated with hypothermia tend to have a better neurodevelopmental outcome. No significant differences were found between the two groups, apart from the fine motor skills.