Background: Outcomes for the four anatomical subtypes of biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) - intrahepatic, perihilar and distal cholangiocarcinoma (ICC, PHCC, DCC) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) - are often combined. However, large cohorts comparing short- and long-term outcomes for the anatomical subtypes of BTC are lacking. Methods: All patients who underwent resection for pathology proven ICC, PHCC, DCC or GBC (2000–2016) from a single Western high-volume center were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathological characteristics, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the four anatomical subtypes. Results: Overall, 361 patients with resected BTC were included (33 ICC, 135 PHCC, 148 DCC, 45 GBC). Clavien-Dindo grade III or higher complications were 48%, 51%, 36% and 8% (p < 0.001) and 90-day mortality was 9%, 15%, 3%, 4% (p < 0.001), for ICC, PHCC, DCC, GBC. Median overall survival was 37, 42, 29 and 41 months (p = 0.722), for ICC, PHCC, DCC, GBC. Five-year survival ranged between 29% and 37%. Anatomical subtype was not an independent predictor for overall survival. Conclusion: In this large single-center cohort of resected BTC, major morbidity and 90-day mortality varied between the four anatomical subtypes of BTC, mainly due to differences in surgical approach However, a significant difference in overall survival was not detected.